APICS Dictionary, 13th Edition 1 accidental death and disability (AD&D) • activity- based cost accounting accidental death and disability (AD&D)—Insurance that. The APICS Dictionary, 15th edition contains more than 4, terms and definitions to ensure a common language among supply chain and operations. Thank you for downloading apics dictionary 13th edition. Maybe you have knowledge that, people have look hundreds times for their chosen novels like this .
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A process. ATP—Abbreviation for available-to-promise. A attrition factor—The budget fraction apportioned for re- assignment—Syn: The control charts See: A A3 method—A means of compactly describing a busi- assembly parts list—As used in the manufacturing ness process. A continuous scale. A from a party to the contract.
A receivable. A based on attribute data include percent chart. A audit trail—Tracing the transactions affecting the con- assortment warehousing—A warehousing technique that tents or origin of a record. A terminations. A future demand. A asynchronous process—A condition with two related A department authorizing it to put components together processes run to finish independently of each other.
A into an assembly. A or machine upon detection of an abnormality or automated flow line—A production line that has ma. A available capacity—Syn: Often called begin- justments to the process. It can also be used as a form of digital automatic relief—A set of inventory bookkeeping me- signature. A ates a highly focused segment of the production automated guided vehicle system AGVS —A transporta. A ning available balance. This system can carry vious equipment used for similar tasks. ATP includes on-hand in- use various means.
A out operator intervention. A automated assembly system—A system that produces computer to automatically change due dates on sche- duled receipts when it detects that due dates and need dates are out of phase. A man physical and mental work. S B computing. A that employs machines to help inspect products for available time—The number of hours a work center can quality control.
The ATP quantity is the uncommitted and terminals. A completed products or assemblies without the contribu- automation—The substitution of machine work for hu- tion of direct labor.
A with the applicable drawings or specifications. A cumulative ATP with look-ahead. A inventory balance in the first period and is normally cal- culated for each period in which an MPS receipt is automatic identification system AIS —A system that can scheduled. A automatic rescheduling—Rescheduling done by the autodiscrimination—The ability of a bar code reader to A read several different types of symbols consecutively. A chines linked by automated parts transfer and handling autonomous work group—A production team that oper- machines.
The formula is ware and software configured to automate calculating. A terial handling devices. Examples of authorized deviation—Permission for a supplier or the automatic relief methods are backflushing. Examples include radio frequency wireless devices order promising.
A textual material to provide information. A payment information in a standardized. A be used. A automated process controls system—A system that can available inventory—The on-hand inventory balance mi- measure the performance of a process.
In the first period. A thods that automatically adjusts computerized inventory records based on a production transaction. A the like. A availability—The percentage of time that a worker or automated information system AIS —Computer hard. A proach has the disadvantage of a built-in differential average inventory—One-half the average lot size plus between the book record and what is physically in the safety stock. This ap- error. A backhauling—The process of a transportation vehicle returning from the original destination point to the point average outgoing quality AOQ —The expected average of origin..
B coming quality for a given acceptance sampling plan backlog—All the customer orders received but not yet and disposal specification.
A average. The average transaction processing. This value declines as output increases. A of how well an organization informs people who have average cost system—In cost accounting. A weighted exists. A backorder—An unfilled customer order or commitment. An empty backhaul is average outgoing quality over all possible levels of in.
B first-out methods. A to contract for the return trip. Sometimes referred to as open orders or the average payment period—The average time between order board. A over units produced. A backflush—A method of inventory bookkeeping where average fixed cost—The total fixed cost divided by units the book computer inventory of components is auto- produced.
B observations taken over several historical time periods. B stock level versus time can be graphed to determine the average. A ing allocated overhead. The Motor Carrier Act deregulated inter- quality level of outgoing product for a given value of in- state commercial trucking and thereby allowed carriers coming product quality. B receipt of materials and payment for those materials. A B average collection period—Syn: Backflush costing is usually as- aged.
A the demand. B out. A average based on quantity of item cost is used to de- termine the cost of goods sold income statement and inventory valuation balance sheet. A grams such as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality average cost per unit—The estimated total cost.
When demand and lot sizes are not uniform. A shipped. Average cost pro- vides a valuation between last-in. A would not be incurred if the activity was not performed average chart—A control chart in which the subgroup e. A avoidable delay—The delay controlled by a worker and therefore not allowed in the job standard. X-bar chart. Award or similar state-sponsored award programs.
A ready to be worked on as opposed to scheduled work avoidable cost—A cost associated with an activity that that may not yet be physically on hand.
Many service operations contain both back room and and innovation and learning perspectives. The dimensions of the ba. B second. B balancing the line—In repetitive manufacturing.
B Baldrige-qualified—A designation claimed by companies backward scheduling—Syn: In such a case. B that can provide the same service response or support as the primary location or maintainer. B back scheduling—A technique for calculating operation start dates and due dates.
Where a reserve system of materials control is used. B bad-debt loan ratio—In financial management. B backward pass—In the critical path method of project planning. The ban- time of one or more operations in a series caused by ner usually contains a hypertext connection to a web uneven workload balancing. B tion. B factor. B Baldrige Award—Syn: Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.
B connects overall objectives. The schedule is computed that shows the balance of inventory items on hand and the balances of items on order and available for future orders. Each dimension has goals and measurements. Award but with a simplified application process.
B bar code—A series of alternating bars and spaces balanced scorecard—A list of financial and operational printed or stamped on parts. B critical path method. It formally front room operations. B backsourcing—Company processes that. B balance—1 The act of evenly distributing the work ele- ments between the two hands performing an operation. B balance sheet—A financial statement showing the re- sources owned.
B bution back toward raw material suppliers. B backroom costs—Indirect costs for operations that do not add direct value to a product and may or may not be balance-of-stores record—A double-entry record system B necessary to support its production. B or damage to the original. B balance delay—1 The idle time of one hand in an oper.
B balking—When customers will not join a queue when they learn how long it is. B baseline measures—A set of measurements or metrics batch—1 A quantity scheduled to be produced or in that seeks to establish the current or starting level of production. B previous years. In this system. B aggregate lot-size inventory plus the aggregate safety stock inventory. B includes.
B quantity that is planned to be produced in a given time period based on a formula or recipe that often is devel- base point pricing—A type of geographic pricing policy oped to produce a given number of end items. B See: B customers. B typical example is a steel company that processes iron ore and produces steel ingots.
B basic stock—Syn: B of production to initiate replenishment of stocks. The average value of the base series over a seasonal cycle will be 1. B bar graph—A graphical method of displaying data by base stock system—A method of inventory control that grouping observations into specific clusters. It does not take into account the antici.
Pareto chart. Customers outside der volumes. For forecasting purposes. A base index—Syn: B are also used from time to time to adjust the level of the base stock of each item.
A figure higher than batch card—A document used in the process industries 1. B phased plan for the schedule or cost of a piece of work. Positive or negative orders. Because this demand is well known and recurring. B order or for stock replenishment. B series is superimposed upon the average demand and trend in demand for the item in question.
B demand-over-time data used in forecasting seasonal batch bill of materials—A recipe or formula in which the items. The base inventory level should be known before The tools are the cause-and-effect diagram also known the production plan is made. B for fast and accurate readability. In actual practice. This series of factors is usually based on the rela- statement of quantity per is based on the standard tive level of demand during the corresponding period of batch quantity of the parent.
B check sheet. B sources to produce materials for other manufacturing. Baseline measures are usually established be. B Bayesian analysis—Statistical analysis where uncertain- ty is incorporated. B ison. B bespoke—A custom-made product or service. B beta distribution—A type of probability distribution often batch production—Syn: B processes.
B batch production. B der requirements are aggregated by product across or- ders to reduce movement to and from product best-in-class—An organization. B bid evaluation—A comparison of supplier quotes for a beginning inventory—A statement of the inventory count product based on price. Defining a best practice identifies opportunities which parts are accumulated and processed together in to improve effectiveness. B vidual orders are constructed.
The bid functional benchmarking. B chaser upon request. B back on product performance. B beginning available balance—Syn: The term originally was applied to clothing. B play best-in-class achievement. B bench stocks—Syn: The aggregated quantities of each product dustry.
B ing. B competitor but is not always a firm in the same industry. A normal property of a good forecast is that it is not biased. Benchmark measures are often derived from other firms that dis- batch manufacturing—A type of manufacturing process B in which sets of items are moved through the different manufacturing steps in a group or batch. B batch sensitivity factor—A multiplier that is used for the beta release—A version of a product sent to certain cus- rounding rules in determining the number of batches tomers prior to general release in order to receive feed- required to produce a given amount of product.
B tion high or low. B bias—A consistent deviation from the mean in one direc- baud—The number of bits transmitted per second. The benchmark target is often a customers. B used to model activity times. B batch number—Syn: B performance standard by which similar items are eva- batch processing—1 A manufacturing technique in luated. B batch sheet—In many process industries. The process of comparing an a lot. B batch card. B trics that is used to establish goals for improvements in batch formula—Syn: B bin location file—A file that specifically identifies the lo- cation where each item in inventory is stored.
B overall factors. B summarized. B bill-of-material explosion—The process of determining bilateral contract—An agreement wherein each party component identities. B bin—1 A storage device designed to hold small discrete bill of labor—A structured listing of all labor require- parts. B bill of activities—In activity-based cost accounting. B key resources needed to manufacture one unit of a se- lected item or family. B bill of distribution—Syn: The bill of activities includes volume and cost of bill of resources—A listing of the required capacity and each activity.
B parent item. The bill of material may also be called the finding value. B subassemblies. B formula. The bill quirements of the master production schedule. Explosion may be single level. B storage area for each inventory item. It describes data and production orders must be released. In bin tag—1 A type of perpetual inventory record. A variety of processing beyond the human scale. It is used in bin. B bills of material to perform specific functions.
B billing and collection costs—In transportation. B processes little q. B of capacity. B be reduced by combining shipments in an order to limit bill-of-material structuring—The process of organizing transportation frequency. B big Q. B to another and to deliver to a designated person. Rough-cut capacity planning uses bill of batches—A method of tracking the specific multi. These amounts can maintaining and retrieving bill-of-material information. In the past. B summary of activities needed by a product or other cost object.
B blend order—A manufacturing order to a blending de- black belt—In six sigma. B blemish—An imperfection that is severe enough to be blocking bug—A defect that prevents a thorough investi- noticed but should not cause any real impairment with gation as to the cause. B by introducing a small percentage into another run of the same product. B black box design—When suppliers or company functions blockage—See: B rizes production.
B block control—Control of the production process in are given general design guidelines and are requested groups.
B B ing. B of the department where the ingredients are mixed. B block system—A system for selecting items to be cycle blending department—In process industries.
Often blanket lar to functional block diagrams except they are orders cover only one item with predetermined delivery modified to emphasize those aspects influencing relia- dates.
B der. B blank check purchase order—An order with a signed block diagram—A diagram that shows the operations. B represent the components. B use. It can have only the values 0 or 1. Responsibilities include defining. B blowthrough—Syn: B blanket routing—A routing that lists groups of operations blocked operations—A group of operations identified needed to produce a family of items.
B bility. B rizing production are not present. B bit—Acronym for binary digit. There are two types of blanket order release—A message that is used to re- block diagrams: B parts to process to remain idle as long as the queue to bleeding edge—An innovative process that may be un.
B blanket rate—A rate that does not depend on the dis. B sequence of operations. B nents in a system. Specific times or tools for each blocking—The condition requiring a work center that has individual item can be included. B going the same basic processes.
B block stacking—A storage method in which pallets. The items may separately for instructions and documentation but re- have small differences in size. B testing. B customer order. B book inventory—An accounting definition of inventory brainstorming—A technique that teams use to generate units or value obtained from perpetual inventory ideas on a particular subject. The ideas are not discussed or re- book value—The accounting value of an asset. B brand loyalty—The tendency of some consumers to stay bottleneck operation—Syn: Customs supervision.
B possible solutions. Potential solutions include com- BOM—Abbreviation for bill of material. BPR—Abbreviation for business process reengineering.
Each person on the team records rather than by actual count. B branch warehouse—Syn: B ments by starting at the bottom of the bill of material or services. B parent to use the remaining units of a component. B BPM—Abbreviation for business process management. B in defining the logic of a complex system.
B bottom-up estimating—A method of estimation that involves disaggregating a piece of work into brand manager—The person in charge of the marketing components.
Boolean algebra also has classes. B body of knowledge—The knowledge in a given area that a person is expected to understand to be certified as a bottom-up replanning—In MRP. B booked orders—Demand that has been confirmed. The model is and agreements contained in the contract. B pressing lead time. B are demanded. B completion that is executed in connection with a con- tract and that secures the performance and fulfillment Box-Jenkins model—A forecasting method based on re- of all the undertakings.
B fore and after the suspect ones. B viewed until after the brainstorming session. B bracketed recall—Recall from customers of suspect lot bookings—The value of all sales after discounts and re.
B imported merchandise. B is asked to think creatively and write down as many ideas as possible. This process is accomplished by the planner not the computer system. B bottleneck—A facility. B whose capacity is less than the demand placed upon it. B boilerplate—The standard terms and conditions on a pegging data to solve material availability or other prob- lems. Boolean algebra is useful rate all possible solutions. B based not on regression of independent variables. B Boolean algebra—A form of algebra that.
Secretary of the Treasury for storing casting. The point of intersection is defined as the than defined time periods buckets. If the period of accu- ance. B stores or hold points.
It can refer to raw materials. B break-even point i. B bucketless system—An MRP. B or manufacturer. B recognizes and plans for the availability and usage of by-products in the manufacturing process.
B bucket—A time period.. B amount of time. B B2C—Abbreviation for business-to-consumer sales. B ognize a particular brand identity and associate it with a browser—Software used on the web to retrieve and dis- particular product line relative to other available B brands.
It derives its name from the circular sym- which the incoming shipments are from a single source bols used to enclose the statements on the chart. B planned value. B ties to perform operations and position material so that brand recognition—The degree to which customers rec. B ending when the profits from a new product offset the cost of its development.
B interrelationships of systems. B bricks and mortar—A company that sells through a phys. B and revenues related to expected activities. B tity according to these rules. B unprofitable. B B7—Abbreviation for the basic seven tools of quality. The delivery person determines the quan. The budget break-even point—The level of production or the volume serves as a pattern for and a control over future of sales at which operations are neither profitable nor operations.
B customer does not specify the quantity to be delivered on a specific basis. The break-even point is the intersection of budget at completion BAC —The total planned budget the total revenue and total cost curves. This se- quence is communicated to supply and assembly activi- brand plan—Syn: B assembled and completed at a given rate. B mulation is one week. B curve. B budgeted cost of work performed—In project manage- ment. B breadman—In kanban. B break-bulk—Dividing truckloads of homogeneous items bubble chart—A diagram that attempts to display the into smaller.
B business environment—Syn: A business plan is usually stated in terms of dollars and chronizing the supply chain. B business cycle—A period of time marked by long-term fluctuations in the total level of economic activity. B to another. By expediting this material into the buffers. B shipping points. B information. They are issued may use application software and other technologies to in quantities estimated to cover requirements of indi. This is caused by the serial nature of and revenue.
Each vessel normally pose of creating business intelligence. B they have used rational business judgment and have no bullwhip effect—An extreme change in the supply posi. B aims to help consumers make better business deci- bulk packing—Placing several small packages in a larger sions by offering them accurate.
The issue may present that data in a simple. B build-up forecasts—A qualitative forecasting technique in which individuals who are familiar with specific mar.
It can be used to determine when more cash B the causes of items missing from the buffer are identi. B change in demand downstream in the supply chain. Business intelligence provides calculating the sum of the forecasts for these organizational data in such a way that the organization- segments. B burden—Syn: The business plan is then translated into synchronized tactical functional plans bundle—One or more unassembled items shipped to- through the production planning process or the sales gether as a set of items.
The overall forecast then is obtained by vices. B ping. The soft- be used to cover a period of time or to fill a fixed-size ware aids in business performance management and container. The bullwhip effect can be eliminated by syn. In addition. B contains a mixture of lots and materials that may be business judgment rule—Under common law.
B al knowledge filters can easily associate with this data and turn it into information for the organization. B buffer stock—Syn: B fied. B grouped by product family. B buffer management—In the theory of constraints. B proximity for competition purposes. Inventory can quickly move from being backordered to business plan—1 A statement of long-range strategy being excess. B and operations planning process.
Some businesses use data warehouses because they are a logical collection of information ga- bulk storage—Large-scale storage for raw materials. B tion upstream in a supply chain generated by a small business market—Syn: B scheduler. In some companies. B 2 A document consisting of the business details organ- business unit—A division or segment of an organization ization.
It performs activities. Any buying capacity—Syn: B cipline or function that uses business practices. The ratio of by-product to primary product is usually predictable.
B business process—A set of logically related tasks or ac- plier selection. It includes traditional brick and tactical plans should agree with each other and with the mortar businesses that also offer products online and business plan. B rienced price swings. B entrepreneur to plan for a new business. The customer- processes. B ducted over the internet between businesses. B buyer—An individual whose functions may include sup- C business planning—The process of constructing the business plan.
B performance as cost. B byte—A string of 8 bits used to represent a single cha- business-to-business commerce B2B —Business con- racter in a computer code. This term should not be confused with Functions often outsourced include human resources. C ing quality. BPM is a holistic approach to the use of ap. B order placement and supplier follow-up are handled by business process management BPM —A business dis.
B of or incidental to the production process. Most process improvement disciplines or activities can be considered buyer cycle—The purchasing sequence that generally as BPM. B flexibility. The im- plication is that this connectivity will cause businesses to transform themselves via supply chain management to become virtual organizations—reducing costs.
It promotes business effective- buyer code—A code used to identify the purchasing per- ness and efficiency while striving for innovation. B prise or supply chain. B BPR activity is distinguished by its emphasis on 1 process rather than functions and products and 2 the buying down—Given a product that historically expe- customers for the process. B store frequently retrieved data. B business service—The software aspect of electronic commerce.
B differentiation. By- business strategy—A plan for choosing how to compete. C items are ordered from one vendor. Bill of material and routing information are required with direct labor-hour or machine-hour data available can-order point—An ordering system used when multiple for each operation.
C calendar unit—The smallest unit of time in a project capacity—1 The capability of a system to perform its plan. C This process may involve multiple manufacturing or dis- tribution sites. C an order. C capacity required. It includes any constraints that might restrict the production. C cut capacity plan. Capacity required represents ment or system of unverified accuracy with a measure.
C an item can be delivered. C orders against available capacity as well as inventory. When any capacity buying—A purchasing practice whereby a com- one of the items triggers an order by reaching the must. C and computer-aided manufacturing to achieve capable-to-promise CTP —The process of committing automation from design through manufacturing.
C capacity available—The capability of a system or re- source to produce a quantity of output in a particular cancellation charge—A fee charged by a seller to cover time period.
Call center ser- demonstrated. C mix. C model of the manufacturing system to determine when calculated capacity—Syn: C cause of inaccurate delivery-date promises. C turing environment. The resulting delivery date takes into tity per of each component or ingredient in the bill or consideration production capacity.
These personnel may provide Capacity can be classified as budgeted. The can-order point is set by considering the individual items are given to the supplier in quantities to additional holding cost that would be incurred should match the committed level of capacity. Capable-to-promise is used to determine cage—A secure area used to store valuable items.
The can-order point is a point higher than the original order point. C capacity. CAM—Acronym for computer-aided manufacturing. C campaign—A series of batches of the same product run together back to back.
C expected function. C standing. CAE—Abbreviation for computer-aided engineering. The calendar time—The passage of days or weeks as in the objective is to reduce the time spent by production definition of lead time or scheduling rules. Capable-to-promise employs a finite-scheduling test. If the seller has started engineering work.
C capacity required can be measured in the short term calibration frequency—The interval in days between tool. C adds capacity in anticipation of increasing demand.
C capacity pegging—Displaying the specific sources of ca- capacity requirements planning CRP —The function of pacity requirements. This technique eli- firm must make as part of its manufacturing strategy. Capacity management is executed at four levels: The term capacity requirements planning in requirements. A lead capacity strategy resource profile. C capacity is insufficient during specific time periods. Capacity requirements are usually capacity management—The function of establishing.
C period. C capacity cushion—Extra capacity that is added to a sys. C schedules i. A capacity-related costs—Costs generally related to in. C this context refers to the process of determining in de- capacity planning—The process of determining the tail the amount of labor and machine resources re- amount of capacity required to produce in the future.
Also called capacity considered. This is analogous to pegging in establishing. Personnel costs include hiring and not a constraint but will become a constraint unless training of direct laborers.
C pacity include layoffs. Historical work center percentages are then applied to the total number of capacity smoothing—Syn: The master schedule capacity simulation—The ability to do rough-cut capacity items and quantities are multiplied by the total time re. Even though capacity requirements planning. C capacity required—The capacity of a system or resource limits. CRP may show that pacity planning. C time. C over a time horizon. C hours to provide an estimate of the hours per work cen- capacity strategy—One of the strategic choices that a ter to support the master schedule.
C hours to produce the schedule. Open This process may be performed at an aggregate or shop orders and planned orders in the MRP system are product-line level resource requirements planning. There are three commonly recognized capacity strate- overall factors. Any resource that. C cartel—A group of companies that agree to cooperate. C posed project. C cargo—A product shipped in an aircraft. C penditure in an operation is capital as opposed to labor.
C mum rates per unit of volume. C cargo container capacity—The inside usable cubic vo. Also carbon footprint—A measure of carbon emissions from a called cash proceeds or cash generated. C cipal plus interest on the diminishing unrecovered balance.
The algebraic sum. C capital asset—A physical object that is held by an organ- ization for its production potential and that costs more carrying cost—The cost of holding inventory. C cascaded systems—Multistage operations. C The investment is expected to generate a stream of fu- ture benefits. C market.
C person. C cash flow management—Syn: C carrier—A company that provides air. C cascading yield loss—The condition where yield loss happens in multiple operations or tasks. Carrying cost is ulti- mately a policy variable reflecting the opportunity cost capital expenditure—Money invested in a long-term as- of alternative uses for funds invested in inventory. C served. C sale of products or services.
C collection of accounts receivable from customers for the CAPP—Acronym for computer-aided process planning. C that produce products. C carcass—A nonserviceable item obtained from a cus.
C of apportioning capital expenditures among prospective projects to conserve limited investment funds. C cash conversion cycle—1 In retailing. Since carload rates usually include mini- changing demand in the marketplace. C expenditure. The input to each stage is the output of a preceding stage. C carload lot—A shipment that qualifies for a reduced cash flow statement—Syn: Carrying cost de- C than some threshold value.
C in a project by means of revenue in excess of the cost cash budget—A budget based on planned cash receipts from the project. Usually implies amortization of prin. C pends mainly on the cost of capital invested as well as capital budgeting—Actions relating to the planning and such costs of maintaining the inventory as taxes and financing of capital outlays for such purposes as the insurance.
C ment of an invoice. C centralized inventory control—Inventory decision making for all stockkeeping units exercised from one office or cause-and-effect diagram—A tool for analyzing process department for an entire company.
C a published book of offerings and ships from its ware- house to the customer. C uct lines. C center—In statistics. An example of a causal model is an function. C cellular manufacturing—A manufacturing process that produces families of parts within a single line or cell of catchball—A business process of floating ideas and machines controlled by operators who work only within comments around in an iterative manner. C personal incomes. C design flexibility. C centralized dispatching—The organization of the dis- causal forecast—A type of forecasting that uses cause.
C cellular layout—An equipment configuration to support catalog channel—A facility that receives orders based on cellular manufacturing.
Rankings are developed across cate- gories. C The cause-and-effect diagram is one of the seven tools centralized purchasing—A system in which all purchas- of quality.
C CCR—Abbreviation for capacity-constrained resource. C sions to a few managers. This struc- and-effect associations to predict and explain relation. C cash-to-cash cycle time—An indicator of how efficiently a cell—A manufacturing or service unit consisting of a company manages its assets to improve cash flow. C dispersion. C category management—In marketing.
C capital in a more profitable direction. C them. Ishikawa diagram. C tossing a ball back and forth. The diagram illustrates the main tionally divided areas.
C beware. It is also referred to as the Ishikawa diagram because Kaoru Ishikawa developed it and the fish. C central limit theorem—A theorem that states that a dis- c chart—A control chart for evaluating the stability of a tribution consisting of sample means can be assumed process in terms of the count of events of a given clas. C quirements. It may include a list or reference of analysis results chain of customers—The sequence of customers who in and process information.
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