chording on "Another Brick In the Wall (Part 2)," and the majestic solo on “ Comfortably Numb"all these. 74 JANUARY GUITAR PLAYER. This study traces the history of the guitar in Brazil and explores the life and Brazilian guitar playing over the course of the twentieth century, and attempts to. Revista Guitar Player - Teoria Musical_Págs 54_81 - Download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read online.
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Today's fado player using the Coimbra model might indicate that its sound quality In his study of black guitar players in Portugal and Brasil, Rogério Budasz. discussed later. new can serve the needs of composers and players with a Nineteenth-century Brazil did have a classical six-string guitar school in the line of. #guitar #ténicas #lesson #music #musica #brasil #guitarist #guitarplayer # musician #aulademusica #aprenda #passoapasso #ebook #pdf #aula #tutorial .
Could he also be in the photograph at 31 years of age? As the performance spaces grew bigger and noisier there was a need for instruments with more volume and better projection; thus, they started to be built with larger bodies. According to Cabral Cabral gives as the date of the historical meeting Armandinho the HMV Sessions.
Heritage HTCD In all types of music, the distinction between amateur and professional is commonly not a clear one, and in the context of the fado genre, for many decades it was hard to separate the two.
At first, in the beginning of the second quarter of the nineteenth I had the pleasure of holding and trying out this remarkable instrument in A few photographs of this GPLx are found in Cabral Approaching the middle of the century, as fado moved up the social ladder and was also performed for bohemian aristocrats in their own milieu, there were already GP players specialized enough to be considered professionals, not because they would charge a fee but because they were dependable in the accompaniment of fado.
At that point in history, continuing its social ascendance, fado made its way into the palaces of the high nobility and GP players benefited financially.
With the assassination of the penultimate Portuguese monarchic ruler, King D. Carlos I, in , and the triumph of the Republic in , noble patronage disappeared and it was no longer possible for a player to survive exclusively from playing the GP, especially as a solo instrument performing an erudite repertoire.
Most of the great players that followed totally connected with fado maintained another profession at least in the first years of their careers as GP players Cabral With the regulatory measures and censorship implemented after the military coup in and intensified by the Estado Novo, it became mandatory to be a professional in order to perform fado in public Nery Official documents were issued to prove professional status within the fado artistic community and other areas of commercial entertainment.
Among the many names all related to fado mentioned in the document as politically dangerous are two of the greatest personalities of the genre: It is clear that, for the regime of the time, fado and the GP were not seen as symbolic of Portugal nor even recognized as local cultural attractions worth displaying. In fado-related literature and lyrics, numerous and intriguing are the references to a banza generally interpreted as a pejorative designation of any crude string instrument of African origin Nery But could it also reveal the presence of other types of instruments that had been used even before the early days of fado?
Social accommodation was possible if blacks succeeded in assimilating the standards of culture and behaviour of their oppressors, anticipating a fundamental aspect of race relations in Brazil in the following centuries. The earliest known written record of an instrument of the banjo-type round body, skin top, small number of strings, movable bridge being played by African slaves in the Western Hemisphere is from the island of Martinique Dessalles The strings are tunable by means of wooden friction pegs, probably an early European Portuguese?
Nittleton in 3. Her tragic short life and her See Chapter Two. See also: Accessed July 28, In his MA thesis, Castela defines bandurra as an instrument with four courses of strings Besides variations in body outline and number of strings, the fundamental difference between this bandurra and the Spanish bandurria seems to be the kind of bridge, the latter using a fixed one. The exception is the previously mentioned Filipino version with movable bridge.
This eighteenth-century instrument is very much like a GPLx, although it still uses the old peg head, also common in other Portuguese string instruments, instead of the head carving in the form of a scroll and the mechanical fan-shaped tuning system, that appeared later after Cabral Its present owner said in that he had obtained it from his grandmother in when she was nearly 80 years old. This might be the instrument mentioned by Pimentel Top in pine, peg head, 17 frets. This choice has been interpreted as linked to an economic reason, in order to produce inexpensive instruments for the less fortunate.
I believe this not to be the case. Instead, I suggest that it had to do with the sound quality of the instrument and a very well rooted practice among Portuguese makers, working for diverse strata of the society, producing items for both the populace and the very rich. The picture is undated, but the names of the rural noblemen have been added at the bottom: Furthermore, dorsal pegs were also used in English Guittars like the one made by Simpson in London in c.
Accession Number: Counts playing Portuguese guitars Cabral estimates that the leque tuning mechanism appeared c. Most of the printed sheet music of fado is written with piano accompaniment. The auto-piano, pianola, or barrel piano were also used to play the music of fado at least as early as Roll No.
New York. Due to an economic crisis, many people started to migrate to Lisbon looking for work. The additional instrument, also called viola but in this case a type of classical guitar with six single-steel strings, would supply the rhythmic and harmonic structures, including bass lines and percussive nuances of the increasingly sophisticated music. This made it possible for the GP to have a true melodic voice in fado, according to an interplay game with the singer, filling in short phrases during the silences of the sung melody, and weaving arpeggio patterns unique to the genre.
Thanks to the return to a democracy in , new generations of players, composers, poets, singers, and fado lovers were able to reclaim the spaces where fado thrives, reshaping a practice that they call their own, celebrating a culture that is kept alive through reinvention and revival.
When fado bounced back to its mainstream popularity niche in the s, a whole new attitude began to appear within the fado milieu, contrasting with the formality and constrains of the past.
The genre emerged stronger than ever, with a renovated corpus of songs, revitalizing its music and poetry in a progressively globalized world. Permeable to all possible influences, it now appealled to a wider audience that recognized in fado something uniquely Portuguese, and intrinsically intertwined with their experiences of life. Towards the end of the century, musicians started to use softer sounding classical guitars with nylon strings, most of them commercially made instruments sometimes equipped with sound transducers under the saddle.
For their enjoyment, a huge commercial machine delivers at their door steps acts of a considerable number of masters of both classic and traditional instruments from many ethnic groups, who readily embraced an opportunity never before available at such a large scale.
She is now another example of a female player, although not in the context of fado. Other factors, such as the introduction of the viola baixo acoustic bass guitar in the s? Currently the types of GPs and violas used in fado are freely chosen by the players and not dictated by a limiting patterned tradition.
The New Voice of Portugal. Some instruments become so attached, as an abstract notion, to a nation or a community that it is hard to imagine one without the other. Different instruments tend to be used in various roles both in their musical commitments and ceremonial symbolic duties. In this chapter, I examine how the GP has been represented and charged with symbolic value over the years. Since then, that image has been reproduced countless times in a variety of media including literature, theatre, film, print posters, books, records and CD covers, sheet music , and it is still explored today in the depiction of female fado singers in publicity shots and in performance.
There followed a period of more than sixty years, from the s to the s, when the GPLx was perceived as the very image of fado and its sound lived in the acoustic environment of the city of Lisbon. Although the GP became the symbol of fado and Lisbon, it did not reach a status of national epic dimension until much later, through the GPCo. In order to contextualize the symbolic value of the most emblematic instrument of the fado genre the GP , one must recognize a larger global community of dispersed Portuguese nationals and their descendants plus a growing number of non-Portuguese fado lovers, in addition to the community of fado performers, poets, composers, and aficionados inside Portugal.
Within this transnational group of fado followers, both the Some male singers have also been depicted holding a GP. The genre is commonly regarded by the members of this heterogeneous population as reflexive of a national soul, a unique lyrical musical art form, the only one capable of conveying the deepest feelings of the Portuguese people. Theatre continued to be Pimentel Two well-known songs place the King in the context of fado: These recordings have not survived.
In there were recordings in Lisbon by Gramco, Odeon which launched the double sided disc that year and smaller companies Vernon, Accessed September 28, After the state broadcaster, Emissora Nacional started to have live broadcasts from casas de fado in Lisbon Casa do Fado See also Colvin For a more complete list of radio stations in Portugal since see Nery This seemingly indestructible connection, deeply rooted in fado mythology and imagery, survived periods of competition with the mandolin Pimentel : The link between the GP and fado is so strong that the mention of the instrument is synonymous with the genre itself, as can be attested by the The first TV broadcast in Portugal RTP dates from Nery It is not because we are playing better than the singer is singing, nothing to do with that, it is because of the symbolism which the the guitarra represents, for them it is different, exotic […] as a symbol it has more strength […].
Even only parts of the instrument, in particular the carved head and the fan-shaped tuning mechanism, leque, are enough to evoke the idea of fado and all its symbology. Portuguese guitar imagery through the ages The history of GP-related iconography is quite a recent one dating from the late eighteenth century. Accessed January 20, I cat. After , fado became the subject of numerous periodical publications, both literary and of printed sheet music Nery Around the same time, the progressive popularization of photography also contributed to the dissemination of the GP image in the hands of players and singers.
A postcard relating to a theatre play shows an anachronism: Severa playing a GP with a scroll and leque mechanism. The image is also found in Fado: At the beginning of the s, several specialty periodicals dedicated to the genre began to be published, most of them displaying the GP in elaborate logo designs.
This became a recurrent practice during most of the twentieth century. In , a public sculpture by Domingos de Oliveira "Guitarra na Proa: The work in the form of a GP honours fado, its diva, and the city of Lisbon.
I believe this to be the first monument in Portugal to use the iconic power of the GP in symbolizing fado. In at the beach town Foz do Arelho, north of Lisbon, fado was celebrated with a sculpture of an abstract Lisboa, Noites de Vidro, by Alice Geirinhas and others. Baleia Azul, ASA, O Fado Ilustrado, by Jorge Miguel. Accessed Decmber 28, A schematic map of Lisbon. Of the twenty-one guitarras that I have seen painted by this artist only two are GPCo. Are these data relevant to the study of the symbolic value of the two main models of the GP in relation to fado?
Graffiti is another medium in which the GP began to be represented in the early twenty-first century. Two murals are of particular interest as they might have been painted by people actually connected to fado and not necessarily artists, at least judging by their naive style of painting.
One depicts a female GP player standing between a larger image of the instrument and a pot of dwarf basil with a popular quatrain written on a paper flag, perhaps evoking the legendary Severa during the summer festivities in her own neighbourhood, and the other is painted on the back wall of an old house in recognition of fado as a cultural heritage of humanity, with an homage to the singer Alfredo Marceneiro.
Accessed November 19, The stamp dedicated to the Portuguese shows a central full color photograph of a GPLx over a background of traditional blue and white tiles, and a gray and white picture of a family of early immigrants, thus giving Accessed January 6, Accessed January 6, In this case the GP is shown as a stylized line drawing, and it is also represented Accessed December, 27, Well known maker Vista Alegre produced a few decorative items and coffee sets honouring fado in which the GP appears in black and white line drawings, some of them based on historical examples.
Since its inception in the nineteenth-century taverns of Lisbon, fado has been intrinsically connected with alcohol, thus it is not surprising that in its name became a brand of Portuguese wine. Vozes e Sombras. Vozes e Sombras, ; , fig. As the performance of fado moved away from the criminal context during the twentieth century and became a musical art form appreciated by most of Portuguese society, its tattoo-inspired designs dwindle in popularity.
It is interesting to note that somehow the authors of these works of art have chosen to evoke the genre by displaying the archetypal image of the Lisbon fado guitarra, thus not corresponding to the current reality of the more-than-frequent usage of the Coimbra model.
If this was a conscious choice, what could be its meaning?
Is the GPLx still the most powerful icon in suggesting the presence of the genre as it is manifested in the collective memory and not necessarily in tune with the present practice?
In contrast, the artwork of posters and other Accessed March 17, This observation seems to suggest that there is still some resistance to considering the GPCo as a legitimate fado instrument when conjuring up the idea of the Lisbon musical tradition. The symbolic nature of the GP has been maintained, but what it symbolizes has definitely changed.
It is as if the GPLx has been dethroned from its past privileged position in fado and a new ruler has progressively been occupying the prominent spot. Curiously the undebatable connection of the fado genre to Lisbon seems not to be affected by the adoption of an instrument attached to another city. The album was first released in in the Benelux countries, but only made available in Portugal in In these two earlier editions the instrument was described as Guitarra Portuguesa.
Accessed March 1, Accessed December 6, The study of fado iconography has attracted the attention of academia and, not surprisingly, the director of the Fado Museum, Sara Pereira, has prepared a PhD thesis on the subject. The application was approved on November 27, , and, commemorating the first anniversary of this achievement, new works are being published, official protocols are being signed involving GP educational programs at the university level, and there are plans to open a permanent building workshop in the historical neighbourhood of Mouraria, where according to legend, fado was born.
A visitor to the exhibit could note the absence of the GP in this event devoted solely to sophisticated outfits. All these exploratory art pieces have the same structural base: In current Portuguese society, fado, and consequently the GP, have achieved such a high profile as indicators of self-identity that it is not entirely surprising that they are the object of inspiration among fashion makers, architects, artists and designers. In the genre and its emblematic instrument made their way into the world of fashion and design: These were not intended to be musical instruments, but rather exploratory works of art, playing with the symbolic nature of the GP in a free frame of mind.
Of notice is the absence of a GPCo outline in the impressive set of works that constitute the current Malabar collection of interventions on the GP. Could this be related to a Accessed Sept 12, http: Most of these pieces have a basic GP body and neck pre-made in a factory, low in cost and suitable for an artist to alter its material existence in order to express a sort of emotional content usually connected umbilically, as it were, to the notion of Portugueseness.
In February , the couple was invited to participate in the publicity campaign People with Talent launched by Spanish retailers Cortefiel. Not surprisingly, the GPCo was once more the instrument being displayed in the photographic material and live presentation of this promotion that included a fado performance.
Accessed October 14, It would be difficult if not impossible to pinpoint the exact date on which the GPCo also started to be used as an icon of fado, but that was hardly the case before the revolution. The GP is still very much a mystery for most of the Portuguese population in and out of Portugal , although its symbolic value is generally recognized, especially within the transnational community of fado aficionados, and it has been used in the tourism and cultural industries.
Could this be related with its own name, one borrowed from another language: In particular I will consider the socio-political conditions that contributed to the surfacing of a new kind of GPCo player.
This reflects a general lack of awareness of the different symbolic pasts of the two models, and a possible case of cultural transference, one that has been noticed by Coimbra aficionados. Nunes a. Correia I start with a question, when was the last time you saw a Portuguese guitarra… Lisbon type?
Assuming that the Lisbon guitarra is different from its congener of Coimbra solely in the ornamentation, presenting a head scroll instead of the tear drop [shape] of Coimbra, let us think and ask ourselves this question: They [a certain type of GP player] show up on TV with some puppet-like attitudes, with some folkloric nuances playing the guitarra, on a guitarra that can not be, and that is why I say that one has to take great care when associating oneself with certain activities in which culture and good judgment are in the balance […] Nonetheless, the change in preferred instruments is not new in fado.
Accessed December 24, The analysis is much more centred on the GP than fado, thus my discourse is guided by the relevance of the study of the instrument within the genre. The last forty-five or so years have witnessed a change in the choice of instruments by fado musicians, with an ever-more-frequent use of the GPCo in music of the Lisbon playing style.
Until now, I have been able to find photographic evidence of early use See Chapter Three. This transformation probably happened for the first time in professional fado during the s at the hands of Pedro Caldeira Cabral, imposed by the attitude of top fado singers who at the time did not approve of the sound quality of the lower tuning.
Nevertheless, it is possible that adopting the higher tuning occurred even earlier. This could have happened by chance, by some amateur player holding a GPCo, perhaps a student returning from Coimbra to his hometown, and in the circumstance of the local milieu, tuned his GPCo to accommodate it to the fado musical idiom. Adopting the higher Lisbon tuning on a GPCo results in an instrument with a greater volume and a fuller sound, that, because of its longer string length, implies a greater tension over the bridge.
Many instruments have been built with this in mind, and ever fewer fado musicians still play GPLx. A possible variant, a hybrid GP dating back to the late s, is the adaptation of a longer string length to a GPLx body Cabral Appearing c. In the meantime, two other great masters of the GPCo, Carlos Paredes and Pedro Caldeira Cabral born , projected the Coimbra instrument into an even higher level of appreciation.
In a published interview, he reveals his underlying musical preference: Fontes Rocha also performed sporadically within the Coimbra tradition, a rare occurrence among fado musicians of the Lisbon milieu. Accessed July 1, Players are aware of the changes in technique and accompaniment in contemporary fado. For instance, in his blog on August 25, , professional fado GPCo player Fernando Silva recognized a new way of playing and singing fado and lamented that the old school is fast disappearing due to a lack of qualified teachers.
A few days later in an online forum, Silva acknowledged that fado tended to change and follow new directions because the musicians not only GP players were still developing the new approach to fado accompaniment. As mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, that seems to be the case among some Coimbra school aficionados who have expressed their awareness of the replacement of the GPLx by the GPCo occurring in fado, which is only natural since the Coimbra See full quotations in the Appendix A.
The phenomenon of the adoption of the GPCo as a legitimate instrument of fado is not only an individual choice of the GP player. This is also a larger phenomenon which has taken the form of a trend and developed in a movement of trans national proportions influencing all mainstream concepts relating to the GP in fado.
One could argue that the Paredes, father and son, although affiliated with the Coimbra style of GP playing, actually lived and worked for many years in Lisbon, and were never members of the Coimbra University, so they could also be considered as belonging to the cultural tissue of Lisbon.
Curiously, it is not noticeable in Japan nor among the Portuguese diasporas in Canada. For instance, in Ontario I believe this to be a question of statistics since in the last twenty years only two new GP players emerged in the context of fado. Cultural retention might also be contributing factor. Regarding Pedro Caldeira Cabral, although he was briefly involved in fado performance, his most celebrated work has to do with period, erudite and experimental repertoire using the GPCo tuned in its original lower pitched tuning.
To include such individuals in the context of fado is nevertheless somewhat strange, although it might reflect the recent cultural transference of the GPCo into fado. The Lisbon model opted for the shorter string length, while the Coimbra guitarra, for the longer one.
The third and current period is a natural consequence of the second. By , a new ethos among top GP players became a reality. The return to a democracy in Portugal on April 25, , following a forty-eight- year period of repressive dictatorship, led to a sense of freedom and openness at all levels of Portuguese society in celebration not so much of the glories of the past, but, most importantly, the victories of the then present.
In parallel, Pedro Caldeira Cabral started an unprecedented work of historical research on the evolution of the GP and related instruments, recording his own compositions and demonstrating the versatility of the instrument in other contexts beyond fado, namely in the erudite and experimental realms LP Encontros, Orfeu FPAT Cabral, who had a brief passage through fado at the forefront of the GPCo usage within the genre before it emerged as a trend , became an incontestable reference of GP playing and composing both nationally and internationally.
The GP players who started working in fado after the political coup had these two powerful role models to follow. Learning the GP as an instrument of fado and related instrumental music was for many decades a process of apprenticeship with an experienced player, in the oral tradition.
Furthermore, the only significant methods that come to light approaching the twenty-first century and during its first decade were dedicated to the GPCo as an instrument of the Coimbra school of playing, tuned to the lower pitched tuning.
These contained among others compositions by Carlos Paredes presented in tablature form, which certainly made it easier to learn even by a player who did not have music notation as a tool.
The other five are part of a collection by Eurico A. At the Casa do Fado e da Guitarra Portuguesa, now categorized as a museum, a school was founded in to provide a learning environment for musicians interested mostly in fado.
Fados and Counter-Melodies. Cebolo had published in the s a method titled Magical Guitar showing a hybrid GP in its cover. Accessed January 31, It was necessary to liberate it and I think I have succeeded. Movieplay MOV HM Musica, Lda. HM cd. I give great importance to the quality of sound, much more than the volume.
But if it has volume and quality, so even better. But the quality of sound has always been the motivation to change the unhas, to change the ways of playing, to get that quality of sound, a clean sound. This guitarra gives me that clean sound I was looking for.
World Connection WC from English subtitles. The performance was not always See also p. Accessed January 30, Paradoxically, whithin the Coimbra amateur tradition, an even more male dominated one, the playing of the GPCo seems to be attracting a larger number of females. With great mastery of the instrument, Marta Pereira da Costa demonstrated that her forte is the soloist repertoire, which allowed for an original fado presentation format, one that gives at least equal agency to the instrumentalist and the singer in a genre where the poetic word is key.
Is the solo GP taking a piggyback-ride on fado due to a market constraint? Viewing herself primary as a GP player, Marta Pereira da Costa, is conscious that there are fewer working opportunities for a solo artist: Marta Pereira da Costa interview March 15, Nevertheless, there are cases of real performance of singers playing GP while they sing, although these are mostly men.
Conclusion Judging by the higher percentage of players currently using GPCo, there is a clear tendency to adopt such a model of GP in the realm of fado.
Among players, sound quality is the most cited reason for their choice and symbolic individuality seems not to be a concern. Players look for a well balanced, easy-to-play instrument, and are not too worried about whether it might symbolically represent Lisbon or Coimbra. Carlos Ramos , D. Movie Play, MOV This practical shift began to be displayed and publicly revealed in the iconography relating to fado. It is particularly interesting to look at how these new GP players present themselves in terms of what they wear, their playing posture, and how they behave while playing.
Nonetheless Coimbra aficionados are outraged and frustrated with what they see as the transference of their GPCo into fado. In fact, this cultural transmission is happening at different levels: In general terms, I understand revival as the return of a practice that existed in the past and was forgotten, which may include the process of approaching a practice or a stance in a creative new way. These included the revisited side slanting of the sixteenth- century citterns; and the arching of the fretboard plus the backwards angling of the neck, possibly two borrowed ideas from the violin family.
Later, hybrids GPs started to be produced by borrowing elements from both of the two For a broad theoretical discussion on revival see Livingston One of the direct practical implications in the sound quality and playing technique of the GP is the ongoing labor on the unhas by altering their contour and using diverse new materials in search for the optimal thickness and flexibility.
Nevertheless, there are currently a number of different approaches to this important medium between the player and the instrument, which are undoubtedly connected with sound aesthetics. Fontes Rocha was also very preoccupied with the clarity of sound produced on the GP; he reshaped the artificial nails in order to alter the angle of attack on strings Some of the present top GP players use this type of approach, looking for the same sound qualities.
Eventually, diverse instrumentation became an option Halpern It is not surprising that in the internationally celebrated fado singer decided to sing to the music of Carlos Paredes, stretching all preconceived ideas about the genre, including those of the great GPCo master. Warner Music Jazz France Other aspects of the Novo Fado include: Recorded at the Union Chapel, London on March 22, Accessed July 26, This development could be considered yet another instance of going back to an old practice among the GP players of the late nineteenth century that divided their attention between fado and an erudite repertoire.
Curiously, since about a reduced number of young GP players working in fado, mostly in traditional settings casas de fado, small stage performances , emerged playing the GPLx.
See also Chapter Five. Looking at the Portuguese guitar playing Nowadays, GP playing in fado occurs at different degrees of quality and professionalism. Amateur or semi-professional practice is not by any means synonymous with low quality. This section introduces the current top GP players in fado. Some of these sought-after GP players have in fact pursued mixed careers, producing recordings as solo artists that in several cases contain references not only to Carlos Paredes, but also to Pedro Caldeira Small neighbourhood establishments serving some food, but mostly alcoholic beverages.
For a detailed account of fado performance in tascas see Gray Accessed July 13, He studies the best guitar players with dedication: Comecei a tocar Carlos Paredes com cerca de doze anos. May 3, I started to play Carlos Paredes at around twelve years of age. To not play Paredes is like not knowing the path of the guitarra, or at least the determinant path that it has had since the moment of his appearance. I only started to play Pedro Caldeira Cabral after my twenties.
But they are the only two existing figures, in the sense that they impelled and initiated a solistic path for the guitarra.
World Connection WC Ricardo Parreira CD Nas veias de uma guitarra. Double CD Luminismo. Mbari Musica, Lda. Mbari Among them are: They all play the GPCo in the higher pitched Lisbon tuning. Since the time fado started to be showcased and celebrated in the World Music circuit in the late s, some GP players exhibited an assumed leading role in the making of the so-called Novo Fado, performing the typical guitarradas with a renovated aesthetic concept that included not only arrangements, giving solo opportunities to the other instruments classical guitar, bass , but also delivering segments inspired by pieces belonging to the realm of the erudite GP.
Accessed Aug 1, Carols For Guitar Arr. John Duarte. Celebri Melodie Natalizie Arr. Luciano Zuccheri. Zdenka Berka. Mario Abril.
Donald Miller. Thomas Catalano. Christmas Standards Arr. Guitar Christmas. Guitarist's Christmas Delight Arr. Musique De Noel Arr. Pierre-Yves Girardin. Weihnachtslieder - Christmas Arr. Fingerstyle Christmas Guitar Arr. Guitars For Christmas Arr. Barrie Carson Turner. The Salutation - Christmas Carols Arr. Giuseppe Torrisi.
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Gustavo discusses and demonstrates how to use use restrictions to expand your vocabulary, how to use permutations and inversions to alter your sound, how to use these techniques over standard progressions and more. Guitar, improvisation, finding new sounds, using open strings, using restrictions, expanding, displacing, transposing, inversions, 3 and 4 note motifs, permutations, applying restrictions to standard progressions, etudes, voice leading, disguising restrictions, soloing, harmonic analysis, etc.
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