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It saves the code and it is used process the values of array. It is also known as iteration statements. Types of looping statements There are 3 types loops available in C.
Output Enter a table value: Difference between while and do while It is also called endless loop. It will the cause the computer freezing.
Simply you place the 2 semicolons on the for loop it becomes infinite loop. Switch statement Switch statement is used to execute the program in multiple conditions. Just like nested if statement, but only difference is if condition fails it will execute the default block.
In each case it has break statement to stop running the program and move it on next case. Nested switch statements Switch within another switch statement is called nested switch.
Jumping statements Jump statements are used to transfer the control of the program unconditionally. There are 4 types of jumping statements available in C as follows. It used with the decision making statements if,else.. Incase of inner loop it will terminate only the inner loop. Output 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 3 Continue Continue statement is used to skip the given condition and it continue the execution of the loop while,do while,for.
In other words it will do the next iteration. This statement used within the if condition. In case of the inner loop it will continue the inner loop only.
Goto goto statement is used to transfer the control of program to the labeled statement. Goto have labeled statement must followed by colon: It transfers the control to other parts of the program.
Programmers rarely used this statement because it is less readable and complex. Again and again it will execute the code. Good programmers will not use this statement. Difference between break and continue Volatile keyword in C Volatile keyword can be used with the variables.
When your variable will be marked as volatile the value of the variable will be change at any time without explicitly by the compiler. These variables are named as volatile variable. Type casting in C Type casting is used to convert one datatype into another datatype. It is best to convert lower data type into higher data type to avoid data loss.
There will be implicit and explicit conversions available in C. To do this, you will need to use to typecast to allow you to print out the integer as its character equivalent Types of casting There are two types casting available in C as follows. Implicit and Explicit casting Converting lower datatype into higher type is called implicit casting.
It is also called as upcasting. It does not have any information loss. Opposite of implicit casting is called explicit casting.. One data type considers higher if maximum value allowed to store in it is greater than the other data type.
For example, float is lower compared to double because double can store more precisions Example for implicit casting: Syntax for Explicit casting: Result of m: Here cast operator will be placed before the division is nothing but parantheses. It is good to practice using cast operator whenever we need the conversions.
Predefined type cast functions in C There are many predefined type cast functions available in C. These are used to convert one datatype into another. Array in C Array is a collection of data elements that holds the fixed number of values of same type. It is use to store large amount of data. An array is stored so that position of each element can be evaluated by the index. Arrays are used to implement the data structure.
If you want to store 50 employee details, for that we allocate 50 variables to the store data, this will more difficult to process the data and then length of code will be too long. So by using array we can overcome from that problem.
Easily we can access the data by using array. It can be any of the data types. Array size must be constant so it has fixed size of data. Sequenced memory locations are allocated to the store the array values in the memory. Array index always starts with 0. Types of Arrays There are 2 types of array available in C.
One dimensional array 2. Multi dimensional array Declaration of the 1d Array Syntax: Consider example as above Here array index starts with C not 1. If size of an array is n, then access the last element, n-1 is used. Array size is 5. Output Enter array values: Enter matrix elements: Introduction to functions in C A function has a set of instructions that perform a specific task. Collection of these instructions creates the C program.
Function contains block of statements. It can be executed many times whenever need it. You can divide your code into separate functions. And this functions are perform some specific task. In C all programs must be in function called main to indicate the starting point of the execution. Uses of functions in C Functions are provide code reusability. So the complexity of the program is reduced.
The basic concept of C functions are reusability, dividing large task into small pieces to achieve the functionality to improve understandability of very large program easily.
Types of functions There are 2 types of functions in C. These functions are provided by system and it will be stored in library. These functions are available in header file which included in beginning of the program.
User defined functions The functions which are created by user for the program are known as user defined functions. We can use it multiple times as we required. It reduces complexity of large program and optimize the code. Function definition is body of the function, which has logic of program that to be executed.
How to calling a function? If function return a value you need to call the function for getting the returned value. Syntax for calling function: It is also called as formal parameters. Function name: It is the Name of the function to be called.
Function body: It has set of statements. Only one value can be returned by the function. If you want to display more than one value it will appear one return value only. Types of calling a function There are two types passing a value or data to a function.
Call by value 2. Call by reference 1. In other words it copies the value of an argument into the formal parameter of the function.
Memory is differing from both actual and formal parameters. Because it copy the value of actual parameter to formal parameter. The value of actual parameter cannot be changed by the formal parameter. Actual parameter: It is used in function call. Formal parameter: It is used in function definition.
So it will affect original value that means it can be modified by the formal parameter. Thus it will change the value; it can be affect inside the function as well outside the function values. Address is used for both formal and actual parameter. Same memory is used for actual and formal parameter. This address is used to access and change the value of the variable. It is also known as recursion. It repeatedly performs the process.
Just like looping statement it repeats same code.
Without using iteration statements while, for this kind of process will be more helpful for us. Recursive functions are used to solve the mathematical problems. This is known as tail recursion. There are two memory locations are available in compiler as follows.
It is also known as automatic variables. It can be accessed anywhere in the program. It is used if one or more files share same variable names. Default storage class for all global variable is extern.
It exists at end of the program. It maintains the value between multiple function calls. There are two types of static variables available in C. It is used to access the variables very fast than the other variables.
It is mostly used in counter variable. Register variables also declared as global and local. It is used to allocate memory dynamically at run time. It can be any type of data such as int, char, float, long,.. Normal variable stores the value where as pointer stores the address of the value. If you do not have any values to assign the pointer then simply give NULL to the pointer. This is known as null pointer.
The size of pointer is 2 byte. Output enter 2 values: Here pointer p1 indicates the address of pointer p2 and p2 indicates the address that contains value. By using pointer we can access the array elements. This is known as array of pointer. Math functions in C In C we have built in mathematical functions that can be used to perform mathematical operations.
Built in mathematical functions in C floor sqrt pow round ceil floor It has one argument and it returns the value which is less than or equal to the argument passed. Return type is double. It has 2 arguments.
If decimal value. If decimal value is. Character type functions in C These functions are used for testing and mapping character. All functions has int as parameter and it returns non-zero if condition is true, otherwise it returns zero. Pre defined character type functions in C isalnum - It checks whether character is alpha numeric or not. Otherwise it returns zero.
It returns non-zero if its argument is control character. It returns non-zero if its argument is digit. It returns non-zero if its argument is graphical character.
It returns non-zero if its argument is lower case letter. It returns non-zero if its argument is upper case letter.
A Entered character is upper ispunct - It checks whether character is punctuation or not. It returns non-zero if its argument is punctuation. Entered character is punctuation character It returns non-zero if its argument is hexadecimal. Hexadecimal represents 0 to 9 and A to F Syntax: Output Enter any character: It returns non- zero if its argument is space.
It returns non-zero if its argument is printable character. String functions in C String s are array of characters that end with 0 null character. This null character represents the end of the string. It can be used for manipulation of strings. Here we have list out the commonly used string functions as follows. Return type is int. Return type is string. The result of the string stored in first string. If it returns 0 both strings are equal. If it returns negative value then it less than the second string.
If it returns positive value then it greater than the second string. HELLO lower case of given string: Structure in C Structure is a collection of different data type variables are grouped together under a single name.
It is user defined data type. Keyword struct is used to declare the structure in C. We can declare many variables in same structure.
Memory will be allocated separately.