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Chapter 2: Full file at meteolille.info Reece-Solutions-Manual Bean Brew I nstr uc to r 's G u i d e As with all the cases in. Read Download Campbell Biology (10th Edition) |PDF books PDF Free Download Here. Campbell Biology, 10th Edition. Jane B. Reece, Berkeley, California. Lisa A. Urry, Mills College, Oakland, CA. Michael L. Cain, Bowdoin College, Brunswick.
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Urry ,Michael L. Cain ,Steven A. Wasserman ,Peter V. Minorsky ,Robert B. Jackson Pages: Hardcover Brand: Description The Tenth Edition of the best-selling text Campbell BIOLOGY helps launch you to success in biology through its clear and engaging narrative, superior pedagogy, and innovative use of art and photos to promote student learning.
The Tenth Edition helps you develop a deeper understanding of biology by making connections visually across chapters and building the scientific skills needed for success in upper-level courses. New Scientific Skills Exercises in every chapter use real data to build key skills needed for biology, including data analysis, graphing, experimental design, and math skills.
New examples show you how our ability to sequence DNA and proteins rapidly and inexpensively is transforming every subfield of biology.
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Recognize potential issues and major topics in the case. What is this case about? Underline terms or phrases that seem to be important to understanding this case. Then list 3 or 4 biology- related topics or issues in the case. Biology-related topics or issues: What specific questions do you have about these topics?
There are many possible answers, depending on the experiences of your students. Below are some likely responses: What Do I Know? What Do I Need to Know? You should expect a range of responses. What kinds of references or resources would help you answer or explore these questions? Identify two different resources and explain what information each resource is likely to give that will help you answer the question s. Choose specific resources. Accept any reasonable resource e.
Students should explain the type of site they are looking for or search terms they might use. Critical Reading To complete this investigation, you should have already read Chapter 7: Membrane Structure and Func- tion specifically Concepts 7.
An Introduction to Metabolism specifically Concept 8. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation. The Koji Phase. In the koji phase of soy sauce production, fungi produce enzymes that break down the carbohydrate and protein in the soybeans and wheat, thereby obtaining energy and molecules for fungal growth.
Recall that koji is left uncovered for a few days, which allows many other types of microbes to enter the soybean-and-wheat mixture. Describe a typical enzyme-substrate complex. What mechanisms do enzymes use to lower activation energy and speed up a reaction? Enzymes are proteins that contain a pocket or groove known as the active site.
The active site is the area of the enzyme that binds to specific substrate molecules.
When substrates are in the active site forming the enzyme-substrate complex , the enzyme undergoes a conformational change, which brings chemical groups of the active site into positions that enhance their ability to catalyze the chemical reaction. Enzymes catalyze reactions through a variety of mechanisms. The active site may act as a template, helping two or more reactants become oriented favorably for a reaction to occur.
Enzymes may also stretch the substrate molecules toward their transition-state conformation, stressing and bending critical chemical bonds. This reduces the amount of free energy that must be absorbed to achieve a transition state.
Alternatively, amino acids in the active site may provide a microenvironment with a pH more favorable to the reaction than exists in the surrounding cell environment. Sometimes the amino acids of the active site briefly form covalent bonds with the substrates as a way to facilitate the reaction. Explain how enzymes break down macromolecules.
What is the role of water? What bonds are broken, what bonds are formed?
Examine Figure 8. The enzyme may also place physical stress on these bonds. The bond between two building block molecules for example, between the C and N of two adjacent amino acids or between the carbons of two adjacent sugars is broken. As discussed in Chapter 5, these enzymes are involved in hydrolysis reactions.
So, at the same time that the bonds between amino acid subunits are being broken, an H is added to the amino side of the peptide bond and a hydroxyl group is added to the carboxyl side of that bond.
Similarly, in carbohy- drates, an H is added to one side of the glycosidic bond and a hydroxyl to the other. In the koji stage of soy sauce production, Aspergillus fungi digest soybeans and wheat. Aspergillus uses some of the glucose produced by the breakdown of the carbohydrates to generate ATP through cellular respiration or fermentation.
Examine Figure 9.
How many different enzymes shown in Figure 9. What types of reactions do isomerases catalyze? Isomerases facilitate the transformation of one type of isomer to another. If you added an aldolase inhibitor, what key reaction would be unlikely to occur? The splitting of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into two 3-carbon isomers, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehydephosphate, and all reactions of glycolysis subsequent to that reaction, would be unlikely to occur.
The Moromi Phase. Once Aspergillus has broken down the macromolecules in the soybeans and wheat into monomers, the koji phase ends. In the moromi phase of soy sauce production, the osmotic conditions for microbes are drastically changed. Explain your sketch.
Consider the movement of water. Students should sketch a shrinking cell showing water moving out of the cell and into the hypertonic environment. Student explanation: Osmosis will occur, causing water in the hypotonic cell to move out into the hypertonic environment.
Some microbes have adaptations for osmoregulation in order to live successfully in high-salt environ- ments. When the brine is added, the populations of bacteria and fungi found in the koji change. Do you expect greater or lesser microbial diversity? The differences in osmolarity in the two environments will cause the death of microorganisms not adapted for high salt concentrations.
This is likely to reduce the diversity of microbes in the moromi. Yet another challenge faces the microbes in moromi. After the brine is added, workers place the moromi in airtight containers for several months.
Which types of microbes will survive under these conditions? Explain how they will obtain energy for life processes. During fermentation, glycolysis produces ATP. Without a supply of NAD1, glycolysis will halt. Tetragenococcus halophilus a bacterium and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii a fungus are two faculta- tively anaerobic species that thrive in moromi. Through fermentation, Tetragenococcus produces lactic acid lactate in its ionized form and Zygosaccharomyces produces ethanol.
What molecule is transformed into these waste products? Describe the two processes. What other waste products are produced? Pyruvate is the molecule transformed into these waste products. In the bacteria performing lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced by NADH to form lactate.
Then acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to ethanol. Are ethanol and lactate oxidized or reduced in these reactions? They are both oxidized, giving up electrons to NAD1. Fermentation of Grapes A. Yeast and Rising Alcohol Concentrations. One of the oldest uses of fermentation by people is to make alcoholic beverages such as wine. However, fermentation also occurs without human intervention. Once grapes ripen on the vine, tiny breaks in the skin of the fruit enable the entry of microbes such as bacteria and fungi.
The interior of the grape provides both a high concentration of sugars and low pH. Fermentative yeasts thrive in this environment and metabolize the grape sugars for energy.
The products carbon dioxide and ethanol are rapidly transported out of the cells as wastes. When people make wine by fermenting grapes, the process occurs within an airtight container. Figure 2. Read grape sugar on the left axis. Yeast and alcohol are shown on the right axis.
Examine Figure 2. The grape sugar level starts at g and ends at g. The yeast population reaches its highest level of approximately on Day. Look at the graphs showing the correlation between yeast population and percentage alcohol.
At what percentage alcohol does this yeast population begin to decline? When the microorganisms die, the process of fermentation stops. What product of alcohol fermentation is not shown in the preceeding graph? If you removed the alcohol as it was produced, would you predict an increase or a decrease in the amount of grape sugars at 10 days? The amount of grape sugar would decrease because high alcohol levels would not kill the yeast.
Available grape sugar declines. Contamination from airborne microbes results in new metabolic activity. The grape sugar is broken down by aerobes using the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Fermentation with Wild and Cultivated Yeasts. In an experiment to identify differences in fermen- tation carried out by wild and cultivated yeasts, a batch of grapes was divided in two.
One batch of grapes was treated with sulfur dioxide to kill wild yeasts before the juice was extracted. The other batch was left untreated, allowing wild yeasts to survive. In the first container, the juice from the treated grapes was inoculated with a special culti- vated strain of yeast. The untreated juice in the second container was inoculated with only wild yeast populations.
Both containers were allowed to ferment for 10 days. Samples were removed daily to Full file at https: Results are shown in Figure 2.