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What did we use to do when we were children? Unit 11 making adjectives from verbs; how to use 'which', 'who', 'that' in Turkish; present, past and future participles as adjectives; how to report events reported speech Otobs duranda bekleyen adam gryor musun? Do you see the man waiting at the bus stop? Unit 12 the inferential; using 'apparently' in Turkish; talking about indefinite past; reporting what somebody else has said; prepositions of place; grammar points; telling jokes and stories; telling an address Aye bir adamla tanm Apparently, Aye met a man Pazara nasl giderim?
How do I go to the bazaar? Unit 13 'if' forms of verbs; conditional sentences in different tenses; regretting; wish clauses; compare Turkish and English sentences; marital status; family members Eer erken kalkacaksanz uyandralm m? If you are going to get up early, shall we wake you up? Unit 14 verbal noun; how to make nouns from verbs; 'have to'; 'must'; expressing obligation; necessity; need; talking about the things we like or dislike Yrmeyi seviyorum I like walking Grlt yapmamalsn You mustn't make a noise Unit 15 comparative and superlative forms of adjectives; making comparisons; giving advice; indefinite pronouns; making recommendations Bugn daha iyiyim I am better today Unit Can you speak Turkish?
Osman'n evi soyuldu Osman's house has been burgled Unit 17 talking about what we were doing in the past the past continuous tense ; past perfect tense past in the past ; participles in different constructions; 'would'; foreign words in Turkish vocabulary; a brief history of Turkey; about Mustafa Kemal Atatrk Tam kyorduk yamur yamaya balad Just as we were going out, it started to rain Mustafa Kemal Atatrk ve modern Trkiye Cumhuriyeti Mustafa Kemal Atatrk and the modern Republic of Turkey Turkish proverbs Turkish idioms A traditional Turkish restaurant menu Key to the exercises Turkish - English glossary English - Turkish glossary Index.
About the author Yaar Esendal Kuzucu has extensive experience of teaching and lecturing in both English and Turkish. He taught English at high school and Ankara University before setting up courses for learners of Turkish in Turkey.
He has also written a series of storybooks for children in English and grammar books for students of English in Turkey published He is currently an interpreter and linguist living in England where he has continued his own Turkish classes. Introduction If you want to communicate really effectively in a Turkish environment, you need more than a phrase book.
What you will need to begin to develop is a grasp of the very different grammar and sentence construction of this rich and fascinating language. This is what this book will give you and whether you are planning to settle and live in Turkey itself or are visiting regularly for business or pleasure, studying what is presented here can deepen your experience immeasurably.
It takes you from the beginner level to the intermediate level in Turkish. You will be able to construct your own sentences instead of depending on off-the-shelf phrases. More than that, it will introduce you to a culture and tradition. First time around you may not be able to understand the dialogues and the grammar explanations thoroughly. Don't worry about that. Try to catch just as much meaning as you can. You will be able to refer to the same points again and again.
Of course, if you want to learn effectively, it's best to study on a regular basis practice, after all, makes perfect. Use other sources in parallel with the book. Take as many opportunities as possible to read Turkish, whether in books or newspapers or magazines or whatever else is available. Use a dictionary look up words that puzzle you or catch your interest. Watch Turkish television and listen to Turkish radio if you get the chance. There are, too, many online resources and you can also find Turkish versions of some websites which can help you to compare and understand the context in the language.
You might enrol in a Turkish language course as well, but most of all practise your Turkish knowledge by speaking Turkish, ideally to people whose first language it is. Familiarize yourself with the sound of Turkish, even if you only understand a fraction of it in the beginning. And if you make mistakes, that's no problem. Turkish people are generally very forgiving and encouraging to foreign speakers of their tongue and it is still not uncommon for the Turk in the street to express sheer delight that you are actually trying!
You will naturally correct your phrases in practice as you use them. Learn and practise which is the essential secret. Listen and read and listen and practise and learn and listen. About the book The Delights of Learning Turkish is a self-study course book that takes the learner from the beginner level to the intermediate level in Turkish. It is designed for English speakers targeting adult and young adult learners, especially for those planning to settle and live in Turkey or visiting Turkey for business or pleasure.
It is a comprehensive, explanatory approach to Turkish language teaching how to construct and use the language both in formal and colloquial forms with dialogues, examples, grammar points, vocabulary and exercises.
It shows the grammatical structures in detail, which enables the learners to make their own sentences. Covering so many language points, this book is also a grammar reference that targets a wide range of audience including advanced learners. The book is in 17 units. Each unit starts with a dialogue. A vocabulary section follows each dialogue explaining the new vocabulary used.
Then comes the explanation of the grammar introduced in the dialogue itself, as well as general grammar rules with many examples. Additionally, there are more dialogues in every unit. There are exercises after each unit to practise the knowledge that has been introduced. At the end of the book, you will find the keys to the exercises. There are also Turkish - English and English - Turkish glossary sections as well as Turkish proverbs and idioms added to the book with explanations.
And finally, the index pages at the end mostly refer to the grammar points. In the book, you can also find general information about the Turkish alphabet and Turkish language as well as notes on Turkish culture in daily life. Although it seems to be a difficult language to learn and despite its grammatical structure being very different from the European languages, Turkish grammar is quite easy and simple once you get used to it.
Other than only a few exceptions, its grammar has its own way with a strong logic and a very good systematic structure. When you apply the rules, it is quite easy to construct your own sentences. Once you get the gist of it, you will be surprised how it is easy to learn the language. The rest will depend on practising and practising. Don't forget: Practising is the essential secret in learning the language.
The Turkish alphabet and Turkish language The Turkish alphabet consists of 29 letters - 8 vowels and 21 consonants. Many of the letters have the same or similar sounds to those they would have in English. Though, there are some surprises: The Turkish alphabet does not have the letters q, x, w, but it does have the unfamiliar letters , , , ,.
Also, in English, there is only one 'i', which is used as capital without a dot on it I and small 'i' with a dot on it. In Turkish, letter 'i' and letter '' are distinct letters and you can use both of them as capital or in lowercase: If you miss the dot on the letter, the meaning and the pronunciation of the word completely changes!
Then there is the letter '', which is called yumuak 'g' soft 'g' that softens the sound of 'g' and lengthens the sound of the preceding vowel. It does not have a pronunciation itself and words do not begin with ''. It always comes after a vowel and makes that vowel sound long, such as Mula a city in Turkey , yamur rain , soan onion , dme button.
Consonants in the Turkish alphabet cannot be pronounced on their own. You need a vowel to read them. Vowel 'e' is used for this purpose. See the full pronunciation chart further on.
If all that sounds confusing, there is an easy bit: You read exactly what you write. In other words, you pronounce the Turkish words in the same way you spell them. The pronunciation and the written text are the same. In English, characters may not be pronounced in the same way as they are written or they may not be pronounced at all - think of words like 'ship', 'cheese', 'night' or 'through'. There is only one sound for each letter no matter with which character you use it or where you place it in a word.
In English, some consonants are not pronounced, whereas in Turkish, every single letter is always pronounced. Stress is very slight. You may not even notice where a word is stressed. Other than with some exceptions, the stress is generally on the last syllable of a word. In Turkish, the words have no gender forms and there is no gender in personal pronouns. For the third singular person he, she and it, there is only one pronoun, which is 'o'. Turkish vocabulary has no resemblance to the European languages.
However, there are words adopted from these languages, such as organ organ , adaptr adaptor , adaptasyon adaptation , disiplin discipline , akustik acoustic , amblem emblem ,. Compared to English, Turkish uses a different word order. Therefore, the sentence construction is also different. For example: The basic order in a simple Turkish sentence is: So many suffixes are used in Turkish. The base structure of the grammar, which gives the meaning of prepositions, personal pronouns, possessive adjectives, all tenses, etc.
Whereas in English, several words are used to express the same thing. Suffixes are added after the verb git go as: Another example is: Suffixes are added after the verb al buy as: The rules for adding suffixes are very straightforward other than several exceptions. This accent sometimes makes the pronunciation of a letter softer or longer than its actual sound.
Here are some examples:. There are still a few words which have letters with this accent.
There are also words that you have to use this accent to distinguish them from other words, because these words have two meanings depending on the accent. If the accent is not used, the pronunciation and the meaning completely change.
Some vocabulary elma apple masa table kitap book otobs bus telefon telephone ma match sports uak plane yumurta egg balk fish bebek baby para money gne sun deniz sea kpek dog ofr driver aa tree hafta week taksi taxi zeytin olive k light kap door iek flower buday wheat da mountain zm grape eftali peach msr corn t iron niversite university zmir a city in Turkey hediye present, gift ev hanm housewife ders lesson.
Unit 1 Merhaba! Ahmet Merhaba! Aye yiyim. Teekkr ederim. Siz naslsnz? I'm fine. Thank you. Ahmet Ben de iyiyim. I'm also fine. Dilek yi gnler. Ali yi gnler. Dilek Adnz ne? Ali Adm Ali. Sizin adnz ne? My name is Ali. Dilek Benim adm Dilek. My name is Dilek.
Ali Memnun oldum. I'm pleased to meet you. Dilek Ben de memnun oldum. I'm also pleased to meet you. Celil Merhaba! Jane Londralym. Siz nerelisiniz? I am from London. I am English. Celil Ben Trk'm. I'm Turkish. I am from stanbul. Jane ok memnun oldum. I'm very pleased to meet you. Celil Ben de. Me too. Altan Milliyetiniz ne? What's your nationality? Are you English? Judy Evet, ngiliz'im.
Sizin milliyetiniz ne? Fransz m? Yes, I'm English. Is it French? Altan Hayr, Fransz deil. Adrien Fransz. No, not French. I'm from Ankara. Adrien is French. Judy yle mi? Memnun oldum. Pleased to meet you. Adrien Ben de memnun oldum.
Trk - Turkish person milliyet - nationality milliyetiniz - your nationality ngilizim - Im English Fransz - French person ngiliz - English person Londra - London Londral - Londoner ok - very, a lot, much, many.
Memur Gnaydn. Ho geldiniz. Good morning. Mary Gnaydn. Ho bulduk. Thanks for your welcome. Memur Adnz ve soyadnz ltfen. Your name and surname please. Mary Adm Mary. Soyadm Smith. My name is Mary. My surname is Smith. Memur Nerede oturuyorsunuz? Mary Fethiye'de oturuyorum, ldeniz'de. I live in Fethiye, in ldeniz. Memur yle mi? Ben de Fethiye'de oturuyorum. I also live in Fethiye. Akn Nerelisiniz?
Paul Birminghamlym. I am from Birmingham. I live in England. Akn Ben zmirliyim, ama stanbul'da oturuyorum. I am from zmir, but I live in stanbul. Paul Trkiye ok gzel bir yer. Turkey is a very beautiful place.
Akn Evet, ok gzel. Yes, very beautiful. Paul Ne i yapyorsunuz? What do you do? Akn retmenim. Siz ne i yapyorsunuz? I am a teacher. I teach English. What's your job? Paul Ben renciyim. Trke reniyorum. I'm a student. I'm learning Turkish. Greetings, farewells and some daily expressions merhaba hello selam hi ho geldiniz welcome ho bulduk thanks for your welcome iyi gnler have a nice day, good day tnaydn good afternoon iyi akamlar good evening iyi geceler good night grrz see you sonra grrz see you later gle gle goodbye allahasmarladk goodbye hoa kal goodbye anlamadm I don't understand kendine iyi bak take care of yourself naslsnz?
You say 'gle gle' to the person who is leaving where you mean 'go with a smile'. The person who is leaving says 'allahasmarladk'. Personal pronouns Pronouns are words that replace nouns, noun phrases or other pronouns. In other words, they substitute for them. Personal pronouns stand in the place of names of people or things.
You use the second singular person 'sen' you when you are informal with somebody, when talking to a close friend or a child. You use the second plural person 'siz' you when you are addressing a person that you are formal with or when you are talking to more than one person. When you say naslsn, actually, it is sen naslsn. The personal pronoun sen in the beginning which is the subject here is not commonly used. In other words, it stands for the personal pronoun 'sen', which is the subject of this sentence.
Similarly, in the other sentence, siz in the beginning is dropped. I'm fine, thank you. The conversation above in an informal way can be: Sen naslsn? I'm fine, thanks. Adn ne? Soyadn ne? Soyadnz ne? Milliyetin ne? Nerede oturuyorsun? Ne i yapyorsun? Ho geldin. Hoa kal. Hoa kaln. The verb 'to be' am, is and are In English, am, is and are are called the forms of the verb to be. They are not main verbs. Some examples are: In Turkish, there are no words for am, is and are.
They exist as suffixes, which are added onto words. Originally, they are the personal pronouns personal endings used in suffix forms as mentioned previously. Below, you can find the personal pronouns in suffix forms, which are also the forms of to be am, is and are in the present form. Which one to use is subject to 'vowel harmony' rules explained in this unit and extensively in Unit 3. Ben gzelim. I am beautiful. Sen gzelsin. You are beautiful. O gzel dir. Biz gzeliz.
We are beautiful. Siz gzelsiniz. They are beautiful.
I am Turkish. Also, it is the verb to be here it is am. The endings for the third singular and the third plural person are often omitted and not used in daily language. They are generally used to make an emphasis or used in public notices or warnings See Unit 4. You use -dir endings also to express general facts, such as 'Kedi bir hayvandr' Cat is an animal. General rules for using these suffixes are shown below: When the last vowel of a word is: In the examples below, you can also see how the rules for using these suffixes are applied.
The personal pronouns and the endings are put in brackets meaning that they are optional to use. Siz retmensiniz. Siz yalnzsnz.
Siz ofrsnz. Siz doktorsunuz. When you start learning Turkish, in the beginning you may have difficulty with. During a conversation, you may use a suffix with a wrong vowel, which may not give the right sound, but still this does not change the meaning of what you are saying. In Turkish, two vowels are not used next to each other. When adding suffixes, letter y mostly is used as a buffer between two vowels All the buffer letters will be discussed in Unit 9.
I am fine. We are students. I am a housewife. We are sick. In order to make the negative form of the verb to be am, is, are , you use deil, which means not. The suffixed personal pronouns are added to deil. Ben retmen deilim. I am not a teacher. Sen ev hanm deilsin. You are not a housewife. Ahmet profesr deil. Ahmet is not a professor. Biz renci deiliz. We are not students.
Siz Alman deilsiniz. You are not German. Onlar ngiliz deil ler. They are not British. Question form of the verb to be am, is, are is made by using the question tag mi, m, m or mu.
You decide which one to use according to the vowel harmony rules. Ben yakkl mym? Am I handsome? Sen doktor musun?
Are you a doctor? Mehmet yorgun mu? Is Mehmet tired? Biz renci miyiz?
Are we students? Siz profesr msnz? Onlar ev hanm m? Are they housewives? The endings for the third singular and the third plural person are explained more in the following units. Is the water cold?
Hayr, souk deil. No, it is not cold. It is hot. Siz ngiliz misiniz? Are you British? Hayr, biz ngiliz deiliz. Biz Trk'z. No, we are not British. We are Turkish. Ben gzel miyim? Am I beautiful? Evet, ok gzelsin. Yes, you are very beautiful.
Yorgun musun? Are you tired? Hayr, yorgun deilim. No, I am not tired. In order to make the negative question form of the verb 'to be', apply the rules to make the negative and the question forms. Ben yakkl deil miyim? Am I not handsome? Sen berber deil misin? Are you not a barber? Nermin gzel deil mi? Is Nermin not beautiful? Biz renci deil miyiz? Are we not students? Siz profesr deil misiniz? Onlar ev hanm deil ler mi? Are they not housewives?
It is not commonly used in a sentence. Aye bir ev hanmdr. Aye is a housewife. Nermin bir rencidir. Nermin is a student.
Altan bir doktordur. Altan is a doctor. Ahmet bir profesrdr. Ahmet is a professor. Bu bir elma. This is an apple. O ilgin bir kitap. It is an interesting book. Saylar Numbers 0 sfr 1 bir 2 iki 3 4 drt 5 be 6 alt 7 yedi 8 sekiz 9 dokuz 10 on 11 on bir 12 on iki 13 on 14 on drt 15 on be 16 on alt.
Parts of the numbers are pronounced without saying 'and'. Also, you use a full stop. A noun can also be in plural. In Turkish, to make a noun plural, just add -ler or -lar as a. Apply the vowel harmony rules: When the last vowel of the noun is thin e, i, or , add -ler after the noun.
When the last vowel of the noun is thick a, , o or u , add -lar. See 'Vowel harmony' in Unit 3. When you use a number before a noun, you use the singular form of the noun. Elmalar tatl. The apples are sweet. Flowers are beautiful. When it comes to greetings and some daily expressions, you use the plural forms in Turkish, such as: They are not used as 'a pair of When they are more than one pair, they can be used in plural.
These words dont comply with the vowel harmony rules when the spelling is concerned. Although the last vowels of the words below are thick vowels a, , o or u , they harmonize with the suffix -ler instead of -lar, because they are pronounced with a soft or long sound. Therefore, you use the suffix -ler to make them plural. Here are some examples: No two vowels next to each other In Turkish, two vowels do not come together as you have learned in this unit.
However, there are words that use two vowels next to each other. They are the adopted words, which mostly come from Arabic, such as: Exercises A.
Answer the questions. Fill in the blanks with the suitable statements below. Ali "Ben de iyiyim. Siz nerede e? Siz f? Fill in the blanks with suitable sentences. Robert "Nerelisiniz? Robert "retmenim.
Fill in the blanks to complete the conversation. Taner " a? Mary "Londralym.
Sen nerelisin? Sen c? Translate the conversation into Turkish. Mary a "Hello! My surname is Tan. Write the statements in Turkish. What are the personal pronouns at the beginning of the sentences below? Ben renciyim.
Fransz msnz? Fransz deiliz. Make plurals. Make the statements negative. Su scak. Put the suitable question tags mi, m, m or mu in the blanks to make questions. Is it ugly? Su scak? Is the water hot? Is it bad? Is she happy? Is it a table? Is it a grape? Is it a chair? Is it a box? Is it good? Is it nine? Turn the statements into negative questions. O irkin. O masa. Answer the questions with yes and no in full sentences.
Nermin renci mi? Aye ev hanm m? Ahmet profesr m? Altan doktor mu? Fill in the gaps with the appropriate personal endings. Ben retmenim, sen retmensin, O retmen, etc. Write the sentences in Turkish. I am not a student.
You are not well. She is not happy. We are not friends. You are not ready. They are not fools. Put the appropriate question tag. Biz arkada? Are we friends? Are we not friends? Is she bad? O mutlu? Siz misafir? Are you a quest? Onlar komu? Are they not neighbours? Sen aptal? Are you a fool? Sen sekreter? Are you a secretary?
Are you not a secretary? O akll? Is he intelligent? Write the numbers in Turkish. Practise your vocabulary. Fill in with the corresponding language. Turkish anahtar They bring a present for them from Antalya.
They become so happy. They hug and kiss each other. Gler meets Ahmet's family for the first time. Ahmet "Merhaba baba. Ben de iyiyim. Nereden geliyorsunuz?
Merhaba anne. Bak bu Gler. Buyurun bu size. Cheek-kissing In Turkey, two women or two men kissing each other on both cheeks is appropriate and a social way to show friendliness among close friends and acquaintances as well as family members. It is a way of greeting. It has nothing to do with sexual interest. In Turkey, you can even see two men or two women walking arm in arm or holding hands in the street.
This is only because they are close friends. Bu ne? Bu araba. This is a car. Bu anta. This is a bag. Bu bavul. This is a suitcase. Bu anahtar. This is a key. Bu ofr. This is a driver. Bu retmen. This is a teacher. Bu Aye. This is Aye. Bu renci. This is a student. Verbs - The infinitive form of a verb The dictionary form Verb is an element in a sentence, which describes an action, event, occurrence or happening.
This ending puts the verb into the dictionary form. This is called the infinitive form of a verb. For example, gel means come.
It is the stem of the verb gelmek to come.
In a dictionary, it is as gelmek to come. When the last vowel of the verb stem is thin e, i, or , -mek is added. When the last vowel of the verb stem is thick a, , o or u , -mak is added. When no suffix is added onto a verb, it is the stem of a verb. It is also the imperative form. Derya and Glnaz are talking on the phone. Derya is calling from Bodrum. Derya "Selam. Ne yapyorsun? Ders alyoruz. Ben u anda Bodrum'daym. Pencereden denizi seyrediyorum, Derya mzik dinliyorum, dinleniyorum.
Buraya ne zaman geliyorsun? Yaknda m? Bugn snav iin alyoruz. Yarn snava Glnaz giriyoruz. Ben burada btn gn yzyorum, gneleniyorum. Burada iki gndr yamur yayor. Hava kt. Sonra grrz. Kendine iyi bak. Suffix -iyor, -yor, -yor or uyor is added to the verb stem and the personal ending is added onto it.
These suffixes can refer to the ending -ing in English. Literally, alyorum is: This tense is used to describe an action happening now and still going on imdi kitap okuyorum. I am reading a book now. O u anda televizyon seyrediyor. She is watching television at the moment. We are eating now. I am learning Turkish. It may not be just at this moment. He's taking English lessons. Tlin ngilizce retiyor. Tlin is teaching English.
Her gn erken kalkyorum. I get up early every day. Muz seviyorum. Some descriptions of the zabaniyatun in the Quran are so similar to their characteristics. For example like them, Namtar graps also men by the hair and drags them down to the Underworld. However, it is not all of the mythic scene. Because some elements of the this scene come from Zoroastrian and Egyptian ideas. But may be he was a kind of syncretical figure of Iranian and ancient Babylonian beliefs the god Rammanu.
It shows the influence of Zoroastrianism on Islam by hadith. Because the Zoroastrian divinity Raman together with Mithra is accepted as a lord of the morning. But Sraosha and Rashnu are divinities who reign the period from midnight to dawn. The days begin when the sun rises. Thus the belief on the angels of grave have some aspects from the Zoroastrianism.
There is one more Zoroastrian mythological character who is known Akem Manah Akvan in Shahnama , has blue eyes and long hair like Munkar, Nakir and Ruman, has been also efficient on the characteristics of the angels of grave.
But then, the interrogative aspect of these angels is also originally an Iranian cultural element. A common practice among the Islamic funeral traditions shows us the contuinity between this belief and the Islamic one. The family members of the dead ask imam to help the dead on his first days. It is called talqin in Arabic telkin in Turkish. But it must be noted that the communicative and interrogative aspects of these angels is also connected with the characteristics of the Gemini.
On the other hand, scorpions and snakes are together one of the most prominent elements of the Islamic Hell and they are also originally derived from the astrological representations.
Of course this is not all, there is also a number symbolism like the nineteen zabaniyah and the seven Hells which reference to the astral elements. Briefly, it is tried to construct a model or to develop a perspective here which is originated from astrology, to understand the backgrounds of the Islamic eschatological figures. Kabir melekleri olarak da bilinirler. Tritton Apinis Rebstock Ebu Nuaym, Damra b. Macdonald a: Smith- Haddad Kahya Jastrow Higgins Spence Modi Paton Foxvog Kasak-Veede Russell Petrosyan Thompson Black-Green Blair Jeremias Konstantoupoulos ; Wiggermann Smith-Haddad Aksoy Bilim Bu Konuda Ne Diyor?
Bu son derece heyecan vericiydi. Savahilice Zabanani Terazi burcunu ifade etmektedir Snedegar Wiggermann Sayce