Brown, Percy () Indian Architecture (Islamic Period). D B Taraporevala Sons & Co. Bombay. Percy Brown-Islamic meteolille.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File P. however. and is therefore entitled "INDIAN ARCHITECTURE. and the. Indian Architecture (Buddhist and Hindu Period) - Percy Brown. state. In the same way the outstanding quality of the architecture of India is its spiritual content .
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INDIAN ARCHITECTURE (ISLAMIC PERIOD) ' BY PERCY BROWN M. B. E., A. R. C. A., F. R.A. • D. B. TARAPOREVALA SONS &: CO. Indian Architecture book. Read 3 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Few countries possess a richer architectural heritage than India. Indian Architecture: Vol. I, Buddhist and Hindu; Vol. II, Islamic Period. 2-vol. set ( Complete). Brown, Percy. Bombay, India: D. B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private .
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Details Collect From q Order a copy Copyright or permission restrictions may apply. We will contact you if necessary. To learn more about Copies Direct watch this short online video. In its outer tions. Each side of its octagonal verandah the conqueror. But for the moment its high time arches. The intention the most sacred monuments of Islam.
Another innovation was should be set apart for my own especial purpose to the imposition of a range of eight cupolas on the roof await my commands. For I had determined to build a rising above the embrasures of the parapet.
It is the production of this essentially Moslem feature. Pl'efiRure the mode that subsequen prevailed under the 5ayyids and the Lodis.
As was not uncommonly the custom. Delhi was sacked The devastating invasion of Timur toOt in the all of which are reproduced in the example at Delhi. In it. Its main interest lies in the fact while on this expedition. Delhi was left desolate "and no mausoleums of octagonal conformation which imparted craftsman. Hitherto the tomb struc. It is illustrated by the fundamentally the style of tomb-building as this deve.
EXcept for the centre and focus of the Faith in India. The outline of its 8rches. For this historical shrine is octagonal in plan. There are other features in the tomb of TiIangani. It is possible that such formation was seH. For exactly two hundred years Delhi had been the imperial these in: History of India. That at the back of their minds there wao. In each comer is a their weak curves. The "stories" of the turrets and other elements. Plate XVII. It is of some of them being large and imposing.
In the upright rectangular panels. This is noticeable in the treat- beam-and-bracket order. There is also the use of colour in the mate- form of cJesjgn these mosque buildings are the prelimi. Such a departure shows itself specially same architectural manner as in the octagonal examples. There are several conspicuous and attractive features ive appeara. The P. In their specialized the building. As with the other and earlier exam- bad. Within this arched recess is a doorway of the in the previous period.
With on the west containing the mihrab. There was evidently a very talented group of attached as a kind of domestic Cliapel to the Bara craftsmen eogaged in this art durinc the fifteenth Gumbad. Such an advance very far removed in many particulars. These tombs are no doubt grace and power. Yet on the other hand there is much that is panels. Adina Mosque XXVI Fig.
At Qadam Rasul. Tomb of Fath Khan dec. Dakhil Darwaza 15th cent. These distant and distinctive examples were produced But in spite of the fundamental changes this move. Plate VIII. Sher Shah'. And now the great Plate XIX. The fonner shows in the buttresses of its comer piers the interregnum-IS the second of the Mughal emperors.
It is however also apparent from its it was produced in 1S47 and therefore some years aftet design that the builders werb endeavouring to return to the jamala masjid. Ten it is a connecting link between the old style of imperial years previously.
Here are in Purana Qila at Old Delhi. Moreover away from the capital. Yet this entire conception on an eminence. And few can now stand in any part of the another the architectural tradition of the Lodis.
To these may be added the tomb of Mohammed Ghaus din Tugblaq the boarder of treasure. An attempt to overcome this failing style generally. It will had brought the rule of the Lodis to a close.
The imposed on them by the Tughlaqs. By comparing the jamala masjid with its structure. Delhi sultanate. One after another of these alien adventurers had ruled. The jamala mosque was architectural appearance. Tughlaq with his frenzied structure of the Lodi style with ornamental features building projects and such staid results. On the affected by the political conditions and was continuing western side of its enclosure is a small mosque which.
Two extensive ruins of this historical Moslem capital with. Except for these remains of timber construction. Although little more than quality. Such building art as these two cities extends. The wood employed is that the indigenous craftsman. In some of the more remote quarters the fact that the controlling lines of the building in which. So much certain features of which bear a resemblance to the so that it is a matter of speculation as to whether the buiJdiDgs of the Saljuqs of the twelfth century.
As a whole. Such a fanciful. These brick and timber associations were continued with Southern Persia to walls were sloped to provide greater stability. It is unfortunate that several of them appear at different times to have been seriously From this rather scanty data. It may be assumed there. On the destruction of Ghazni by the tiles in brilliant colours.
Islam made its way into these Roman builders. In addition to the beams embedded much of Its history. There is some- Lahore exame: To re- what is now the country of Afghanistan. So distinctive in its design and mode of treatment are nished Ghaznavide kingdom. Plate XXIV. And it was brickwork of a remarkably fine cities of Multan and Lahore. ImOwD as "ber" miP. There is nothing palaces in Lahore assumed.
That they were carved designs resembliDg heavy tassels and knotted of much the same character as those in the parent city fringes. It became. This influence. Tantipara Mosque cir. Qadam Rasul Fig. The and the second 2S feet. The underlying ideals of its creators are fairly clear. Over the battlemented parapet tiles AIdioaP most of the faces of the tiles are merely painted. The tomb of Rukn-i-Alam at lIultan is a building of t is true they are rectaDgular in plan.
Sof four vertical walls. Then they became engaged on an undertaking place in the decoration. It is recorded that this tomb ower storey. Although that of stability and permanence. Inpbet prohibiting natural forms was strictly observed.
Then a striIdDg feature of its '. Consisting of a tall foundational into the waDs at appropriate intervals. With this facts in view.
Then its great height. The first four are square which matured into their finest achievement The slope. In this partl. In common with other buildings of its class Chapter IV. The tiles were an effort to bring a represents three patterns of culture. In style this mausoleum of the landscape. The principal mosque at Pan- results of this movement are to be found in dua. Although about one hundred and and Pandua. Amidst this dernised. Slem handiwork in Bengal may be studied.
Here at the riverside village of Tribeni. It is most probable that the Mohammedans first established themselves at Tribeni and then pressed inland from the river. This is a of destruction at least three great cities have Tower of Victory. Although in a rmWniS. The first stage is illustrated by a group of buildings. In this 4letenDined. Hindu temples. Masjid at the Mohammedan capital of Bengal. There can be the development of Moslem architecture in Bengal as it m India containing such a wide expanse appears to be the earliest existing example of a multi- ruins.
Now almost completely deserted. Great Mosque of Damascus eighth century.. The unfortunate that its designers did not think of introduc- data is scanty. On the other hand with the transfer of the capital from T. The design aneI construction of this portion but. Pillars of a similar type confOl'JDing to their own individual ideals. At the south east comer three architecture it is a building of little consequence.
In the process of re-erection it continuous facade. Here the new Moslem capital W8I es. Two of these the existing Hindu structures to suit the changed lead to an upper storey.
Around the interior of the courtyard and forming a medan tomb-chamber. As an example of Islamic amounting to in all.
It is in which is one of the most capacious of its kind. Pandua expanding lotus cap'itaJs. Such a are found in other buildings in Bengal but are seen no- movement in this instance appears to have coincided where else in India. Yet it is planned on orthodox lines. In length it expansive q courtyard of the Adina Masjid. It was obviously the outcome of an impulse by pillars of a remarkable type. If this is correct it is the quarries.
For this mihrab is a inferior desip of the mosques was an a. All are exquisitely The former refers to the type of arch that was adopted wrought but the eye naturally turns towards the feature. This JS in the form of a trefoil arched alcove contained out its entire course.
Here are improbable that the finest monuments of the Hindu three outstanding elements essential to the ritual. Many No description of this sanctuary hall would be com. It is very doubtful tention is specially directed because although now in whether the Moslem overlords ever obtained any of ruins. Instead smaU domes were raised over "san face" at the apex. The certain grave and stately dignity.
Within this frontal screen was the entrance to the Although of proportions approa. It is a siDpJady pac: What the exterior of parts of the Adina mosque. The facade.
It is true the. Plate XXV. It is vast but it has lCheme of the facade was completed by minor archways. It is however to the roof above that at..
In the space above these on lotus. The plan of ardIed bays which fonDed the coaditioos that then prevailed. Its perial style testify to the intermittent nature of the wall surfaces are divided up into a monotonous diagram association. Amq the many terra-cotta patterns decoratiOn.
As to the vious lliDdu buiIdiIj. The Daras rounded cupola in the Piruzian style of Delhi. Judpg from Golden 1IoIque the five arches of the faade are of the clwader of the patteras and. It is from such an example showing the After the building of the Tantipara Masjid about beginning of the decadence.
Under Ifoelem arches of its facade supported by examples of that ex. Whether any contact could have been possi. Its interior contains impressive three lowest being twelve sided while the two upper are aisles of arches carried. The 1. It depicts the pheno. Some of structure tends to become ftaccid and formless.. Most In the first buildings the effect of this downward curve of them are at Gaur and are x the Chamkatti or Cham.
On the other hand the terra-cotta alike and yet so distantly situated. Such a distinctive form of as Ahmedabad in the Sidi Sayyid mosque and built enrichment ID colour which is also found in the facades about the same time Chapter IX. It is a series of eleven pointed arches between the octagonal about eighty-four feet in height and in five stories. These occasional borrowings from the im. A feature of this tower is its pillus of stone.
OOuced as far away and white Jiazed tiles.. This massive form of pillar is stone carving on the Mohammedan builciiJIII wbae it aleo well iDuatrated in the restored moaque at Tribeni in was original it was the handiwork of IIincfu artiIans. But in the 3 the Lotan masjid both about x. Most of this glaze is rather space with its leafap. Tin Darwada cir. I Cambay: Jami Masjid Fig. Evidences of aampes as for instance in the Adina Mosque and the this appear at Dimapur in the Sibsagar District..
When the tury What they the Moslems were established.. Nola 0" Gar. Abid Ali Kha.. Wated ideals and proceeded to build structures of octagonal turrets at each end.. It has the central pointed archway. These Bengali craftsrnen achieved may not have been a great art. Although the best examples of the style are confined To sum up. It was during the remaining Atala Masjid.
More- about the same time the foundations of a congregational over. Jaunpur appears to have taken -its the middle of the fourteen century. This is the masjid struction. The earliest building of his was formed and its typical buildings were produced. Not The Atala Masjid takes its name frOID the fact that much information as to the state of the art can be derived it was built on the site of the Hindu temple of Atala from these projects.
The imperial city of Delhi lay. Attracted by its c: For from the fourteenth century are few in number. Founded thus by pface.
Plate XXX. The fourteenth century may be regarded as encouraged. The course of Jaunpur's history corresponded in date Especially was Jaunpur famed for the number and approximately to the latter half of the fourteenth variety of its colleges. Yet it is quite possible that the bulky of the secular buildings.
Recorded to have been erected as far back as A. It is oran unusual type. The city of rule of Shams-ud-din Ibrahim Delhi and elsewhere by the vicissitudes of the time. Sikandar Lodi. The general arrangements of this mosque. Architecture and the arts were also lopment. This arched builder possessing understanding and vision of a very pylon. It is throUgh acreened angles of the building itself.
It is from this rear point of verted by means of brackets in each corner into a sixteen view of the mosque that the conjunction of the two sided story. Moreover its recesses fonnation and fresh spirit of such a notable architectural and projections. On the other hand the some Egyptian temples. According to usage the qibla or with pillued transepts on either side. In the middle of each of these Shah's tomb at Tughlaqabad.
That somewhat illogical three sides. In the jaunpur example arches or arcades for its effect. There must therefore have the design of its facade the jaunpur architects have been engaged in the production of the AtaJa mosque combined artistic skill with remarkable orisinaUty.
The lowest compart. The decorative quence. Above this. What- courses of stone. There is inscriptional evidence to theme of the composition. The third or uppermost stage is con. The cloiaters are very spacious. Within the pylon is a great have been combined and adapted to form a distinctly arched recess eleven feet deep. This pylon. A conspicuous feature of the. Were it not that thIS three entrance halls.
So far the scheme of this moaque deviates but little from thOle previously referred to. On each side of this dommating feature are the arcaded wings of the side-aisles. In in with perforated stone 8CI'eeDS. Only the central being absorbed into the kingdom of Delhi. This interior consists of the square hall of the nave. Plate XXXI. The former. Iaq's mosques of a conveys the impression that the builders were not so similarly elevated type at Delhi. Nearly a generation appears to have passed after the with the forms of its three gateways leading up to that building of the Atala Masjid.
Its general the architectural appearance of the whole. Yet seen from the side. It appears to same syStem as that of the AtaJa Kasjid already des- ha. The of the other Jaunpur examples. M'aliks Khalis and M'ukblis. A simplified variety in order to tight the inside of its dome. It is there- portion of the facade remains. The scheme of this appearance of this arched pylon has given the building mosque repeats in most respects.
On each feptoduction of the Ataia llasjid. The architect of the of this kind. It also dently inspired by some of Firuz Tugh. The courtyard is a much concerned in its constructioJ1 or the proportion square of 2I feet side. From such a small scale. All the Jaunpur mosques. La1 Masjid is said to have been a Hjpdu named Kamau. It owed its production austere example.
Not long afterwards the largest and most ambitious and transepts being devised on the same system as the of the Jaunpur mosques began to be erected. In design this mosque consists of a courtyard one hundred and thirty-two feet square. On eIch acc: Screen in Sidi Sayyid Mosque dr. XLI Fig. Jami Masjid XLII Fig. The of the transept halls. More carefully prepared are the traceried patterns in the window openings.
It is true rule. In spite of the frequent appearance of the arch in the which was of brick. And few signs of that delicate elegance which is usually a there is no. As the style progressed the in the middle. Unencumbered by have been those arismg out of the aesthetic aspect of pmars or support of any kind. As a matter of proportion. Yet all this unsophisticated handiwork Kasjid. The extended. Jami Kasjid.
Jaunpur Jami Yasjid. Its imperfections. There is consequently an form of a wide pointed vault. The only attempt at a mosque from being a work of architecture of more than similar construction in the country was the nave of the ordinary merit.
This system produced a permanent centering. One is would be graceful compositions. In the Jaunpur example mosques of Jaunpur. A vault of such a size and indigenous system of bridging a space.
Some of these brackets which. But the masons were obviously result is a solid stone shell. Adina Mosque at Pandua. They were often uncertain of its the forty feet space a framework of four pointed arches curves the contours of which in some of the larger or ribs consisting of two transverse ribs at wide intervals examples wavered weakly. Yet on the other hand the pylon with its great mosque facade..
In"""" oj. It is resses thus became their rallying points. Its similarity to at Benares. FaIanr ad Smith E. AUeb'bed Mohammedanism was a militant move- pearance of the arched pylon in the centre of the facades ment and wherever its outposts were established often of these mosques. Fort- other manifestation of Indo-Islamic architecture. DUIricI G. UtriUtl Pt-orn.
This influence is indicated by the ap. With this tradition latent pylon may have been self-originated.. The position as a whole however diftered but monuments which. As they certainly expressed themselves even more abun- regards the fonner it does not appear that the pat. They began to produce the new type of building with just the same aesthetic and constructive sense as when every measurement was city of Ahmedabad towards the centre. Although in every intention strictly Islamic.
Beginning with the period by the Islamic authorities to change their orientation. As elsewhere the slightly earlier date in England. Just as the Norman Muslim rulers were almost entirely dependent on such invaders were at the mercy of the English masons in the local labour as was forthcoming to carry out any of their production of their cathedral architecture.
Judging from the freedom displayed part of the country being pre-eminent. For convenience of study the style may be When these hereditary temple builders were constrained resolved into three periods. It was therefore not so will be shown. But these rulers were powerful that which llourished in Gujarat is the most indigenously potentates. Such an architectural subversion does of being formative and experimental some of the mosques not however appear to have aftected to any appreciable have a certain charm and considerable dignity.
In each case however the ruling autho- accomplished artizans in the whole of India. In the building of this craft became at one stroke obsolete. To direct this genlus to their Thi1l Islamic style of architecture 1l0urished in Gujarat own purposes was an easy matter for the Muslim over. There are two dictated to them and every detail bound by a precise main reasons for the Indo-Islamic architecture of this religious formula. A parallel to these patronage was however more than balanced by the conditions.
It is a pied a prominent position within a rectangular enclosure even simpler structure but with a notable in. Ahme- r: Ano- of direction and supervision given by Muslim ther mosque at Dholka is that known as the Tak. On the other hand in the The Second Period into which the provincial style of inside the archways of the facade at Gujarat has been resolved.
For in the Cambay mosque we further advance. Ahmad Shah began the. This ruler began his long and prosperous reign an engrailed arch of temple extraction. These conditions were fuUilled in the of the Khaljis. In reality. In design these turrets are indigenous. Except that it carries on the style for another twenty-tive years later the Muslim rule in stage.
Away from the citadel and towards the facade in the shape of a pair of tall the centre of the city itself. Iltlll turrets. The provincial governors not a simple open structure as in the previous whose personal patronage provided the chief source of at Broach.
It is an arrange- that they mark a further step m the formation and posi. Had the orientation of the mosque permitted. Yet although conveying of the style. The former is in faculties and powers.
It or Royal Square of the citadel. As would speaks of that "silent flowering in stone of the souls be expected in view of this intermission. As a composition of solids and voids model for the great Jami Masjid becun shortly after.
The portal. It is how. From this point the scheme was ex. A beginning was made with Ahmad sion was one of those rare psychological moments des- Shah's mosque in the citadel. By means of the Alam. What the pillared portico on the other.
In pair of tapering turrets which. For this building after an interval of some seventy-nve years. In this mosque under Ahmad Shah's enthusiastic in the sanctuary. It can only be presumed that the occa- nfteenth centulY. At this particular juncture. It will be already shown. The graceful several elements. J ami Masjid. The architectural effect of this mosque is concentrated led.
These are I Ahmad Shah's mosque with. The Sayyid Alam mosque. This ideas. The has been already shown. The interior of this mosque sanctuary takes the form some one hundred and sixty miles north-east of Ahme- of a hypostyle hall feet long and 95 feet deep. It is through these screens that compared with that of Semptimus Severus which is 68 the galleries are illuminated. At each stage is a platform with a example contains three openings.
To adjust this ex. But it was in than 'five feet. The arrange. Plate XXXV. These galleries ted. But it owes much of its refined aesthetic appearance traneous structure so that it conforms to its new position to the contours of its arches.
The central compartment of nave rises up into three stories. Plate ted. Siddhapur of the twelfth century. Later the large Jain temple at Sadri.
Much of the varied effect of the interior central feature of Ahmad Shah's processional route. Around of Constantine of the third and fourth centm i. The loggias. Mohammed Shah II. Tin Darwaza is however barely 37 feet in height as forated stone screens. In the tenth century temples of Sas much the same manner and measure as does the grey Bahu at Gwalior something of the kind had been attemp- arcaded west front of a Gothic cathedral.
The nave is composed of two pillared galleries place bazar. Through the associations of lower gallery is square and the upper octagonal. This is the triumphal archway forming the for the zenana. Plate of all. In theory ment of its parapet relieved by the three elegant oriel it is not far removed from the scheme of constructing windows on brackets.
Prophet died and was buried. Beyond the king'.
This mausoleum is a square structure with The great size of this mosque may be judged by its. As usual. Privacy is jects. The two is a square open enclosure of feet diameter.
Sancti1ied by these brick piers. This tomb is feet square. A large dome style hall. Mohammed bearing the date of.
The interior however also resembles a hypo- rounding the tomb chamber within.. From the character of the architecture structures. While the former was in power. In the except for this departure. The BMjr". As a contrast to the open character of the between these. Sarthej became in the course of tbne a and the structural process emplofed.
There is its kind in Gujarat. Sayyid Buddha bin Sayyid Yaqut. Both the tomb tectural complex of considerable importance. Within each corner of which the hypostyle hall of the sanctuary occupies of this outer formation is a small square chamber. In addition to these royal pro. To his memory.
These two buildings are the tomb of Darya Khan in Ahmedabad. One of these Queens.. The bases of all the domes both Islamic authority. This mausoleum is a large and imposing The indigenous workmen were too conservative and too feet square. The introduced fresh principles and a more scientific tech- at Dholka is much ruined.
It is fairly evident that while the builders' hands opening is a pomted arch. A group of workmen from bringing with them the building practice of Buildings of such a pronounced character. Around this central cha. Taken ground.. Haibatt Khan's Mosque.
Rauza of Malik Sha'ban. Nothing could be more refined than the shapely pillars tecture. In such compositions the mosque alwars retains tomb of Usman its production was made perfect. Both are of much more sfender in their proportions. This method The ma.. By this time.. So many were the monuments and building Of the tomb opposite to this mosql!
On the other probably of a secular origin. In the intenor. These two buildings depict a the Begarha period. Another ad-. Ita two buildings. Each separa.
The facades of each are screens Of the open type of mosque that in the. The window itself was addition to the arched wall enclosing the front of the fitted with a perforated stone screen and projected in sanctuary. This feature was of indigenous extraction. About the customary arrangement of its parts. Both from this type of facade. In the closed variety. This have its minarets situated at each end of its open pillared sanctuary.
At least three important cities were founded which group themselves along its front. In this closed form of the Sayyid Usman. This dome covers a space of forty feet side. This fact is however readily explained as it of perforated screens.
At Batwa. Ted early in the mosque facade. Covering a rectangle of. S5 took place about the year I when the mauso. In it the builders have grasped fully the -. Yet there is no little evidence in the for- tomb. In I the and the beam. The plan grace. In the were not altogether sure of their ground.
In this instance the building is composed same time was finding favour at Delhi under the Lodi concentric enclosures comprising an outer dynasty. Shortly afterwards.
Obably a decade later.. This was doe to the tomb As distinct from the type of tomb architecture refemd len. But the attracted to Gujarat. The appearance and construction of this tomb. Mall- Champanir. Yet in this particular example the tional mosque design. In the production and tragic as any in India. It is necessary spectator is prepared for its effect of stately elegance by therefore to revert to this date in order to follow the these appropriate exterior embellishments.
This particular motif correspon. The city of The sanctuary facade is of the enclosed kind. Before expediting the creation of his new capital at Champanirs entering within the precincts of the mosque therefore. It is recorded to have taken some twenty-three comparatively unadorned. Contained within a of Sidi Sayyid with its approximate date of Most striking of all the buildings is the Jami treated with such aesthetic sensitiveness and technical Masjid.
Among most buildings of this type. Plate XLI.
Through the central mirage which on close acquiantance will dissolve into archway one enters the sanctuary. Al- Chapter VII. The mosque the Jami Masjid at Ahmedabad. A noticeable feature of the ever ill this mode for another half century.
Sultan Mahmud Begarha was openings of a singularly attractive design. For in addition to the these may be mentioned the Rani Rupavati Rauza or three imposing entrance pavilions. The walls of the citadel of of the Sidi Sayyid mosque. One of the subjects thus presented may be character of these having protected them where the designated the "palm and parasite" motif.
N ow its fine buildings. But the patterns of this tracery were Then over all. Plate XXXIX and the series of beautifully moulded buttresses on the In the meantime while the building art was being qibla or western wall. Buildings continued to be produced how. Mandir or Custom House and quarters for the guard.
But passing along its silent grass-grown ing feet across and feet deep. In the plan and general arrangements when all else is forgotten.
Ibrarim Rauza cir. I The Tomb Fig. L Fig. I Bijapur: Entrance to the Dargah of Banda Nawaz LI Fig. But even the Florentine well-heads. They are built on the Quattro-Cento period in Italy..
The as appears to have existed in Gujarat. From the ground it rises up finally to colonnade WIth projecting bays at regular intervals.
Access to and shattered shell.