Object Technology • Object-oriented programming and design. We introduce the basic concepts and terminology of object technology in Chapter 1. Students. In book: Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth As a computer programming approach, OOP is useful such that it. meteolille.info There really is no shortage of books and websites describing the basics of object oriented programming.
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Object Oriented Programming (OOP) is an approach to program organization and Object-oriented programming is the most recent concept among. OOP: Introduction. 1. Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming. • Objects and classes. • Abstract Data Types (ADT). • Encapsulation and information hiding. computations, object-oriented programming can be thought of as data driven. Using With object-oriented programming, relations are defined between classes.
The called object then has the ability to handle that method call however is needed. This ability for each object to determine its own response to method calls as needed is called dynamic dispatch.
It allows objects to evolve over run time, and respond to messages according to their present state. Message passing can be a little confusing, especially since most languages in use today only implement one particular kind the method call. Here are a few resources to help you better understand it:.
Closely associated with message passing and dynamic dispatch is the concept of encapsulation.
Encapsulation means that code outside of an object cannot directly access its internal data. This is usually done with a method call. However, many experts in OO development encourage programmers to adhere to encapsulation principles by not calling properties directly , even in languages that allow it. There are many benefits to encapsulation. Primarily, it allows any details or side effects to be abstracted away from the point at which the property is called.
For example, each time a particular value is read, you might want to check when it was last calculated, and re-calculate it if certain conditions are met. Being able to add, remove, or change that logic in one place at any time, without affecting any of the other places in the code which make the call, is a benefit of encapsulation.
Inheritance and composition are two ways that various classes and their instantiated objects are related to each other. In this example, there might be a Person class which defines all the properties and methods of Persons in general name , birthday.
Then a User class would extend the Person class, to add things like a username attribute or login and logout methods. Like the inheritance hierarchy, the compositional hierarchy can easily be several layers deep. For example: Much of the design work in object-oriented development has to do with mapping out these relationships of inheritance and composition.
The class diagram , which is a part of the Unified Modeling Language is an invaluable tool for visualizing these relationships. Polymorphism or, more specifically, subtype polymorphism is a concept that naturally comes out of inheritance.
Each subclass might implement the method differently, but calling objects do not need to know which of several subtypes they are calling. They can treat all different subtypes of objects as equivalent.
Polymorphism is a big subject, and is not without controversy.
Here are a few resources to help wrap your head around it:. For a deep understanding of object-oriented programming, a number of classic and contemporary books on the subject are invaluable, and can hardly be replaced by online tutorials. For a more practical, and contemporary, understanding of object-oriented programming concepts, try one or more of these online resources:.
Not all programming languages support object-oriented programming. Some languages are designed to do nothing but support OOP. Others allow for a variety of approaches to programming. Still others appear to be object-oriented, but implement the concepts of object-orientation in non-standard, incomplete, or just plain unusual ways.
Below is a list of some of the more popular OO-capabable languages, with notes about their approach to Object Orientation, and some resources to help you get into OOP with that language.
The internet is filled with essays that look at language X vs language Y — most of which just scratch the surface.
We suggest you check out this more general Programming Language Comparison. This thoughtful analysis looks at specific details of several popular OO languages, discussing how particular OO concepts are implemented in each. C is not an object-oriented language. However, it is at least possible to write OO code in it:.
None of the techniques described in those books and articles are particularly robust or easy to deal with for non-trivia programs. Rather than trying to stretch C to its limits, there are three direct descendants of C which include object-oriented language tools.
NET Framework. Lisp is not essentially Object-Oriented. According to some conventional points of view, Erlang is not an object-oriented language. However, there is a fascinating minority opinion to the contrary, and its proponents state that Erlang Is the Most Object-Oriented Language, or even that Erlang is the only true Object-Oriented language. Much of this also applies to Elixir , as well. On other hand, maybe this is just OO-style , not true OO.
Its core is really functional programming, but it includes support for OO and attempts to reconcile these two different approaches to programming. Fortran is the oldest programming language still in common use. When it was invented in the s, there was no such thing as object orientation.
But it was possible to implement some basic OOP concepts in earlier versions of the language. Go is a relatively new language, having been developed by Google in There is a lot of discussion about whether or not Go is object-oriented. From a certain point of view, then, you can think of Go as object-oriented. Java was built from the ground up to be object-oriented.
Here are some great resources to get you going with Java:. But a lot of other people think that it definitely is. We feel our job is to help you find useful resources, not take sides in unwinnable debates.
Python codes does not need to be object-oriented, but the language fully supports it. Check out these resources:. You add two integers by calling the addition method on one of them; you find the length of a string by calling the length method on it. Smalltalk is probably the most influential object-oriented language, having had a profound effect on the languages that came later.
As a result, it is good to have at least some familiarity with it. These resources will get you started:. If you want to be a well-rounded developer, it is important to understand both the good and bad of any concept. Even though object orientation has become the dominant way of understanding programming, there are legitimate criticisms to be made — both of the ideas themselves, and the culture of hype surrounding them.
Meanwhile criticisms of object-oriented programming , as well as of the design patterns movement , are on the rise. Still, a large amount of the software written today is object-oriented.
If you are working in any of the common object-oriented languages , you need to have a good understanding of basic object-oriented concepts. Confused about what programming language you should learn to code in? Text written by Adam Michael Wood. Compiled and edited by Frank Moraes. If you're in the market for a new web hosting provider, be sure to check out our user reviews , our A-Z hosting guide and our top three popular hosting picks: Skip to content Object-Oriented Programming: February 25, Important Object-oriented Concepts Object-oriented programming is a concept — a way of approaching the problem of designing a computer program.
Separation of Concerns The central guiding principle which informs all the other concepts in object-oriented programming is separation of concerns. Objects and Classes It seems, at first, that the fundamental concept in object-oriented programming is objects.
Methods and Properties An object has variables, which are usually called properties or attributes in most languages. Here are a few resources to help you better understand class, properties, and methods: NET tutorial, covering some design considerations which are applicable to any language; Understanding Classes, Methods, and Properties in C provides a good explanation, with some helpful diagrams.
Message Passing and Dynamic Dispatch Classes, and a number of other concepts covered here, have become inexorably linked to object-oriented programming. Here are a few resources to help you better understand it: Some one asked What is message passing in OO? Encapsulation Closely associated with message passing and dynamic dispatch is the concept of encapsulation.
Inheritance and Composition Inheritance and composition are two ways that various classes and their instantiated objects are related to each other. Inheritance versus Composition: Which One Should You Choose?
Topics covered include: This book aims to instil the reader with an understanding of the Object Oriented approach to programming and aims to develop some practical skills along the way.
These practical skills will be developed by small exercises that the reader will be invited to undertake and the feedback that will be provided. The concepts that will be explained and skills developed are in common use among programmers using many modern object oriented languages and are thus transferrable from one language to another.
However for practical purposes these concepts are explored and demonstrated using the Java programming language. While the Java programming language is used to highlight and demonstrate the application of fundamental object oriented principles and modelling techniques this book is not an introduction to Java programming.
The reader will be expected to have an understanding of basic programming concepts and their implementation in Java inc. This text is designed not as a theoretical textbook but as a learning tool to aid in understanding theoretical concepts and learning the practical skills required to implement these. To this end each chapter will incorporate small exercises with solutions and feedback provided.
At the end of the book one larger case study will be described — this will be used to illustrate the application of the techniques explored in the earlier chapters. This case study will culminate in the development of a complete Java program that can be downloaded with this book. Find the book you need Go!