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New in English For Business. Oxford Business English: The CD-ROM contains more than interactive practice exercises, plus diagnostic and review tests to assess competency. McGraw-Hill; Date: PDF topnotchenglishsz topnotchbooks grammar. Great Grammar Practice 1 - 6 - - - - - - - - - - - This resource features ready-to-go reproducible pages that target key first grade grammar topics—parts of speech, verb tenses, capitalization, punctuation, types of sentences, and more!
Each activity includes quick teacher tips, but because most students will be able to complete these exercises independently, they are perfect for seat work or homework. Solid practice that helps reinforce the grammar skills students need to succeed—and meet higher standards! Each unit focuses on a specific grammar topic and students are given adequate practice in the use and meaning of that topic. The multiple-choice questions test their grammar knowledge at the sentence level and the cloze exercises at the text level.
The chosen texts not only illustrate grammar items in context but they are also cross-curricular, informative and even fun. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language This grammar book has been prepared with three objectives in view.
First, while covering in an up-to-date manner the ground common to all English grammars , it is designed particularly to meet the needs of the foreign student of English. So, for example, the tenses of the verb, the use of prepositions and 'phrasal verbs', the articles, and word order are dealt with in considerable detail; many examples are given of the commonest sentence patterns in English.
Secondly, it is intended to be really comprehensive, in that it will , as far as possible, provide an answer to any grammatical problem the student of English is likely to encounter.
Brief accounts of the history of the language and of the phonetics and intonation of English have been included also, since these matters-although not strictly 'grammar'-are bound to be of interest and importance to most students of the language. Lastly, it is meant to be a practical grammar, one that is suitable both for work in class and for students working on their own; so it is provided with a very full index and with plenty of exercises.
A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. It has been thoroughly updated, to take into account significant changes in grammar over recent years. With a user-friendly style and simple explanations, the Collins COBUILD English Grammar provides a comprehensive and authoritative guide to modern English grammar, using grammar terms that learners will understand.
Notes on the various situations in which certain grammar points typically appear, authentic examples, and information on the key differences between British and American grammar, make the Collins COBUILD English Grammar the only fully-updated and truly global English grammar available.
English Grammar. One of the greatest challenges in learning a language is mastering verb conjugations. English Verb Drills makes it easier than ever for you to meet that challenge. It allows you to focus exclusively on building your mastery of verbs without being distracted by other elements of grammar.
Using this unique title, you will build the confidence you need to use verbs correctly and to be comfortable expressing yourself in speech and writing. For learning grammar, you'll find the most success in retaining your skills through drills, drills, and more drills. English Grammar Drills reinforces your knowledge and enhances your ability to read, write, and speak in English.
Each chapter deals with only one subject, so you are not overwhelmed with information and drills and can proceed at a comfortable pace. With close to exercises you will get plenty of opportunities to practice what you have learned. English Grammar Drills. English Verb Drills. Susan's car has been stolen, and she is very upset about it.
Transitive and intransitive verbs Some verbs are followed by an object, and some are not. If a verb is normally followed by an object, it is called a 'transitive verb'. The verb to buy has an object, so in this sentence, bought is the transitive verb, and a car is the object.
I bought a car. If a verb is not normally followed by an object, it is called an 'intransitive verb'. The verb to travel does not have an object, so in this sentence, travels is an intransitive verb and there is no object. She travels frequently in Asia.
Relative clause A clause beginning with a word like who, where, which, whose, or that.
It is used to identify someone or something, or to give more information about them. Stefan Andersson is the consultant th a t we employed on our last project. Short forms The verbs be and have, and the auxiliary do, can be contracted into a shorter form e.
These short forms are commonly used in speech and informal writing. Verb A word like buy, sell, be, seem, think, break, decide, etc. A verb describes an action, a state, or a process. In the following sentences, competed, lies, buy, and sell are the verbs. Five companies com peted for the engineering contract. La Defense lies to the west o f Paris. We buy and sell shares on the open market. Simple and continuous forms Tenses have both a simple and a continuous form.
The simple form carries a sense of completion, or regularity of action. The continuous form carries a sense of continuity, or incompleteness of action. The continuous form ends in -ing. Presentation O Form The table below shows how to form the present simple tense of the verb to w ork. All verbs except to be and the modals see Units follow this pattern. For negatives and questions we use the auxiliary do and the bare infinitive: Do you work?
D o we work? Do they work? The short forms of the negative are commonly used in speech and informal writing. Common mistakes: All verbs except modals must end in -s in the third person singular affirmative: My new laptop w orks very well. We add the -es form to the auxiliary do , and not to the main verb work: I know Karl doesn't w ork in Accounts.
Permanent situations The present simple is for actions and situations that are generally or permanently true: IBM is one o f the largest computer companies in the world; it m an u factu res mainframes and PCs, and sells its products all over the world. Q Routines and frequency We use the present simple to talk about routines and things we do regularly: I usually g et to the showroom at about 8. The sales reps arrive at about 8. Facts We use the present simple to talk about scientific or other facts: Superconductors are materials that condu ct electricity and do n ot create electrical resistance.
Programmes and timetables We use the present simple to talk about programmes and timetables. When we use the present simple like this, it can refer to the future: The fast train to London leaves at 7.
Then you catch the Heathrow Express to the airport - it goes every fifteen minutes. Form Complete the dialogue using the verbs in brackets. See the example. Where 1 do you , come from? What I'm a software engineer. And so where In Helsinki? No, well, I Yes, I Permanent situations - company activities Complete the inform ation about the business activities o f the Finnish com pany Nokia, using the verbs in the boxes.
Originally a paper-making business, the Finnish company Nokia is now one of the worlds largest mobile telecommunications companies.
This division designs and 1 maau -CAc-twre. Of course, phones The Ventures Organization The organization also Routines and frequency Com plete the dialogue by putting the verbs in brackets in to the correct form. See the exam ple.
I need to speak to Gina about this new publicity brochure. She She gave up her full-time job and now she When Well, she She usually Hydrogen is the simplest and most common element in the universe, and 1 a very high energy content per gram.
As it is so lightweight, rockets and space shuttles Hydrogen rarely When an electric current When hydrogen This process At the moment, it Programmes and timetables Complete the dialogue by putting the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
Have you got the details of the Easyjet flight? Now there's also a later one that That's a bit late. Did you check Eurostar? Yes, there's a train th a t Then you have to change trains, but there's no problem because the Nice train Then it Describe w hat people with these jobs do, m aking any necessary changes to the verbs.
B Management consultants A stockbroker An air steward Auditors invest design write check advise look after arrange buy and sell. Look at the inform ation about Nokia on page 8. Write down some sim ilar inform ation about the different divisions and business activities of your company. Answer the follow ing questions about your daily routine. Presentation 0 Form The present continuous is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary b e and the -ing form of the verb.
For negatives and questions we also use the auxiliary b e and the -ing form of the verb: Arc you working? Are we working?
Are they working? The short forms of the positive and negative are commonly used in speech and informal writing. An alternative short form of the negative is also sometimes used: For spelling rules, see Appendix 1, page Moment of speaking The present continuous is used to talk about an activity taking place at the moment of speaking: I'm afraid Herr Seifert isn't available at the moment.
He is talking to a customer on the other phone. G Current projects The present continuous is used to talk about actions or activities and current projects that are taking place over a period of time even if they are not taking place precisely at the moment of speaking: Barton's is one o f the largest local construction companies.
At the moment we are building a new estate with houses and we are negotiating with the council for the sale o f development land in Boxley Wood. O Temporary situations The present continuous is used to indicate that an action or activity is temporary rather than permanent.
Janet organizes our conferences and book launches.
The present simple is used because this is generally true. Janet is away on maternity leave, so I a m organizing the conferences and book launches. The present continuous is used because this is only true for a limited time. Q Slow changes The present continuous is used to describe current trends and slow changes that are taking place: The latest economic statistics from the European Central Bank show that both unemployment and inflation are fallin g in the Eurozone countries, and that the economy is growing at an annual rate o f 2.
For information about how the present continuous is used to refer to the future, see Unit Moment of speaking Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous. I am talk to someone on the other line. I thought you had gone to the airport. I'll call the IT Department. Current projects Read these newspaper extracts about various projects th at different companies are currently involved in. Match the extracts in colum n A with the extracts in colum n B. China's Central Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation is planning a big increase in output, b The Hotel Sorrento in Seattle is upgrading its rooms and facilities It is currently nearing completion of a new dictionary project.
Temporary situations Two colleagues m eet in Paris. Read the dialogue and put the verbs into the present continuous. Hello, Jason. What 1 are. Hello, Pierre. I'm just here for a few days. Where At the Charles V. Very nice.
And how's business? Not that good. The recession People How about you? It's much the same over here. Companies just Still, our Financial Services Division Slow changes Read the following passages about changes th at are taking place in the travel industry. Fill in the blanks with the verbs in the boxes, using the present continuous. This is partly because some of the low-cost airlines The technology As a result, more and more executives Answer these questions about yourself and your company's current projects.
Va de. M 2 What are you doing at work these days? What examinations or professional qualifications are you studying for? W'hat other aims and objectives are you tryingto achieve outside work? Write short paragraphs about some tem porary problems. Explain w hat the cause is. A problem with the underground: A t -the.
Write about changes currently taking place w ith the car market, using the prompts. Presentation The following are examples comparing the present simple and present continuous:. Routine vs moment of speaking 1 Henry w orks for PDQ a business delivery company. Every day he collects and delivers packages for local companies.
Henry is w aiting in reception. In 1, we are talking about something that Henry does as a routine. In 2, we are talking about something that they are doing at the moment of speaking. General activities vs current projects 1 I w ork for a firm o f recruitment consultants. We design psychometric tests. In 1, we are talking about ageneral activity.
In 2, we are talking about aspecific current project. Permanent vs temporary situations 1 Peter deals with enquiries about our car fleet sales. In 1, this is permanently true. In 2, this is a temporary situation.
Facts vs slow changes 1 As a rule, cheap imports lea d to greater competition. In 1, we are making a statement about a general fact that is always true. In 2, we are talking about achange that is taking place at the moment. Stative verbs There are a number of verbs which describe states rather than actions.
They are not normally used in the continuous form. Common examples are: Verbs of thinking: Verbs of the senses: Verbs of emotion: Verbs of possession: These are usually found in the simple form because they do not refer to actions: I'm sorry, I don't u n derstan d what you mean.
We do not say: Routine vs moment of speaking Decide if the speaker is talking about routine activities or activities going on at the m om ent of speaking. Put the verbs into the present simple or the present continuous. An interview with Bill Cogges in the dairy business Interview er: Interview er: What sort of quality control procedures As a rule we I'll show you round a bit later, but the production line 9. General activities vs current projects Decide whether the verbs refer to general activities or current projects.
Put the verbs into the present simple or present continuous. W set up the company in w e ith a grant from the local government. W provide, provide IT backup and e support for a number of small and medium-sized businesses in the area.
A the moment w t e Permanent vs temporary situations In the follow ing exercise, decide w hether these situations are perm anent or temporary.
Facts vs slow changes In the follow ing newspaper article, decide w hether the verbs refer to general statem ents about change, or to changes th at are currently taking place. Governments cannot last for ever. Normally political parties1 ervjoy enjoy a period of great popularity in their early years, then they After that, they The newspapers Stative verbs In each of the follow ing sentences, put one of the verbs into the present simple and the other into the present continuous.
The marketing people She's not in her office and nobody has seen her since lunch. The first verb should be in the present simple, and the second verb in the present continuous. Write questions to go w ith the answers. Use either the present simple or present continuous. I come from a little town called Zug, near Zurich. I'm writing to Markson's to ask for an up-to-date catalogue. I think he's a consultant. I usually cycle in, but sometimes I bring the car. Our Sales Director goes abroad about three or four times a year.
No, not at all well. In fact, the factory is doing a three-day week. Yes, very well. We met in No, not at the moment. But we'll start taking on new staff again in May. Presentation O Form The past simple positive is formed by using the past tense form.
Regular verbs add -d or -ed to the bare infinitive to form the past tense. For negatives and questions we use the auxiliary did and the bare infinitive: D id you w ork? D id they work? The short form of the negative is commonly used in speech and informal writing. Using the past tense form in negatives and in questions, wrong: No, I didn't ch ecked them.
D id you check the figures?
No, I didn't check them. Irregular verbs Some verbs do not add -ed to the bare infinitive to form the past simple, but change in other ways.
Look at the example of the verb to go: D id you go? D id we go? D id they go? Q Completed actions The past simple is used to talk about completed actions in the past: Baring's, the oldest merchant bank in England, collap sed in when a rogue trader in the Singapore branch lost million on currency deals.
Later that year, the Dutch group ING bou ght the entire bank for the sum o f 1. O Time expressions with prepositions As in the example above, the past simple is often used with past time expressions: Form Use the verbs in the box to com plete the sentences. Some of the sentences are positive statements, some are negative, and some are questions. Oh, I'm sorry to disturb you.
Last week a number of customers I am writing with reference to the order I At last year's launch party, w h o Irregular verbs A Write in the missing form of each of the irregular verbs below. Each verb can be used with the expressions on the right. Choose a past tense form and one of the expressions above to com plete the follow ing sentences.
Completed actions Complete the follow ing passage by putting the verbs into the past simple. New York in Her parents 1 were, be both immigrants, and she But it was her uncle, John Schotz, who 3 introduce Ester to the world of cosmetics. He was a chemist and Ester She 13 develop a whole new style of selling, with in-store demonstrations and free samples, and new outlets soon As her company Over the next few decades, the company Time expressions with prepositions Make questions from the prompts and com plete each answer by using in, on, or at.
She married h im January 15, They had their first c h ild March She set up the com pany She got her first big break He took over as C E O Then a group of younger managers took the com pany over and made it profitable. Say w hat they did, using the past tense. Write a short paragraph about your career history, giving the dates where possible.
Presentation Form The present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary h av e and the past participle. For negatives and questions we also use the present tense of the auxiliary h ave and the past participle: H ave we taken? H ave they taken? The past participles of regular verbs end in -d or -ed, and have the same form as the past simple.
For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix 2, page Therefore we do not use specific time expressions such as yesterday, last week, in , two days ago, etc.: I h av e given your report to the MD. Past action: I gave her your report y esterd ay. Present result: She h a s the report now. I h av e sen t them the samples they wanted. I sen t the samples this m orning. They are in the post now. Specific and non-specific time If we say when something happened, we use the past simple, not the present perfect: I spoke to her yesterday.
Similarly, with expressions such as on Monday, in , at 3. Just The present perfect is often used with the word ju st to talk about very recent news or actions that have taken place very recently.
Again, the exact time is not mentioned: I'm sorry, Mrs Smith is not here. She h a s ju st left. Been and gone Notice the difference between h a s been and h a s gone: I'm afraid Mr Smith is not here at the moment. He h a s gon e to a meeting in London. He is still at the meeting. Amanda h a s been to the travel agent. She has your tickets for Hong Kong.
She went to the travel agent and has returned. Form Complete the follow ing sentences by putting the irregular verbs into the present perfect. They tav eV t not pay us for their last order.
Why don't you call her now? He's our new Finance Director. Present results of the past Look at the notes below the pictures. Write sentences in the present perfect which link the past events with the present results. Specific and non-specific time Complete the follow ing newspaper extracts w ith the correct form of the verb in brackets.
Then say w hen these actions took place. If you do not have the inform ation, write no in form ation. See the examples. Toys R Us The shares are currently trading slightly higher. Most analysts EGYPT yesterday The country Just - recent actions Complete the sentences w7 ith one of the verbs in the box, using fu s t and the present perfect. She Irute le. There's an article in the paper about BMW. Yes, I know7 I Would you like to come and have a look at it? Shall I send it up to you?
They're in my car. Would you like the phone number of his hotel? I don't know where their new offices are. Use a verb in the present perfect to explain why the present situation has occurred. Write short paragraphs about the changes th at have taken place. Complete or continue these sentences using the present perfect. Have you ever worked abroad? I have never been to South America. The present perfect with ever is often followed by the past simple. We use the past simple to give more information about a completed action, when referring to a specific time or context: H ave you ever been to Hong Kong?
Yes, I have. I w orked there when I was with Coopers and Lybrand. Already and yet The present perfect is often used with a lrea d y and yet: They are getting on well with the new building. They' h ave alread y m odern ized the warehouse, but they haven't d ecorated the reception area yet.
A lready is used in positive sentences. It often indicates that something has taken place slightly earlier than expected. Notice its position in the sentence between the auxiliary and the verb: She has alread y shown me the figures, not: Yet is used in questions and negatives. It shows that we expect that an action will take place if it has not happened up to now.
Notice the position of yet, and n ot yet: