being the first part of. THE LORD OF One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings is often erroneously. part of The Lord of the Rings. The first part, The Fellowship The Two Towers. The Lord of the Rings Part 1 The Fellowship of the Ring By JRR Tolkien. 1. What this film is about: The Lord of the Rings trilogy is based on J R R Tolkein's In the first part, we learn that Bilbo Baggins, one of the gentle, peace-loving.
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“THE LORD OF THE RINGS' V*art One THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING NOTE ON THE SHIRE RECORDS At the end of the Third Age the part played by . IMAGE: SEVEN RINGS held aloft in triumph by the DWARF LORDS. GALADRIEL (V.O.) TEASING SHOTS: SAURON forging the ONE RING in the CHAMBERS of. SAMMATH NAUR My heart tells me that Gollum has some part to play yet. View and download meteolille.info on DocDroid.
Very skilled, he gains the trust of the Hu- of a chimerical world, the Middle-Earth, devastated man kings, the Dwarves lords, and the Elves wises.
In his fortress, Sauron free people still resisting his empire. Yet, Sauron attacks and manag- the relation of work and nature stands in the search es to control some rings, giving them as gifts to nine for harmony, in which respect and reverence to cre- Human kings and seven Dwarves lords.
Before closure of an era. Plato and Augustine the collet of the ring inside his hand, when instantly he became invisible to the rest of the company and they Once understood both the stories of the work and began to speak of him as if he were no longer present. In The Lord of the Rings, John Ronald sult — when he turned the collet inwards he became in- Reuel Tolkien entirely works the concepts of free will visible, when outwards he reappeared.
Whereupon he contrived to be chosen one of the messengers who were and original sin through the symbol of the One Ring. No man would keep his hands off what was not his own when he could safely This they affirm to be the origin and nature of justice; take what he liked out of the market, or go into houses — it is a mean or compromise, between the best of all, and lie with any one at his pleasure, or kill or release which is to do injustice and not be punished, and the from prison whom he would, and in all respects be like worst of all, which is to suffer injustice without the po- a God among men.
Then the actions of the just would wer of retaliation; and justice, being at a middle point be as the actions of the unjust; they would both come between the two, is tolerated not as a good, but as the at last to the same point. And this we may truly affirm lesser evil, and honored by reason of the inability of to be a great proof that a man is just, not willingly or men to do injustice.
For no man who is worthy to be because he thinks that justice is any good to him indi- called a man would ever submit to such an agreement vidually, but of necessity, for wherever any one thinks if he were able to resist; he would be mad if he did.
Plato, Such is the received account, Socrates, of the nature , pp. And it is precisely just and unjust man to be proceeding along the same in the difference between them that Tolkien shows his road, following their interest, which all natures deem disagreement towards Glaucus, in Republic, although to be their good, and are only diverted into the path using a story similar to Gyges, the Lydian. The liberty which we are supposing may be most completely given to them in the Bilbo had found the One Ring, and Gollum knew form of such a power as is said to have been possessed it.
They were both in a cave, facing each other. Gol- by Gyges the ancestor of Croesus the Lydian. Nevertheless, Bilbo keeps the of the king of Lydia; there was a great storm, and an One Ring thanks to a riddle challenge and, being in- earthquake made an opening in the earth at the place visible, he has the possibility of killing Gollum, which where he was feeding his flock.
Amazed at the sight, he he chooses not to do. Now the shepherds will also approach the myth it represents, that is, the met together, according to custom, that they might send forge of the One Ring has precisely to do with the vol- their monthly report about the flocks to the king; into untary control of the will.
Deepening such statement we tried to com- Ring as power. A moral of the whole after the primary symbolism of The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally reli- the Ring, as the will to mere power, seeking to make gious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but itself objective by physical force and mechanism, and consciously in the revision.
For the religious element is absorbed into the and heroic is meaningless Tolkien, , p.
Tolkien, , p. As such, the Augustinian philosophy tion of the original story of something, whether be- becomes necessary to the comprehension of these ing of life, of sacred, or even of power, referring to a statements. In sum, the One Ring: Was I relationship with God. Augus- than himself. But then he depends on them. Thus, it is ve virtuously except when he wanted it, he had to have free will, without which he could not behave virtuously.
So, that no man is capable of being just by his own will. Now, that for this it was differences between the just and the unjust man in granted can even be known from this side, that if so- the ring of Gyges, the Lydian.
Between Bilbo and meone uses it to sin the punishment from God will fall Gollum, described in The Hobbit, Tolkien claims that upon it.
Actually, how would it be fairly inflicted pu- 3. A Ring and the three levels of Symbol nishment to whoever used will to such purpose to whi- ch it was granted? Why symbolism as Evil and desire for power, we deep- did you not use your free will for the purpose I gave it en the analysis in the narrative itself following Paul to you, that is, to act honestly? For such, we have chosen ennobled when condemning sins and dignifying good the initial poem, three scenes in which the temptation deeds, if man was deprived of free will?
As a matter of the One Ring is placed for characters that were not of fact, what was not done by will would be neither sin nor good deed. Thus, if man had not free will, both corrupted then, and precisely fall into its servitude, punishment and prize would be unfair. Thence the need of dominating and im- the sacred.
Ricoeur, , p. Now, the only good one So, retaking the narrative, three scenes are pre- knows he cannot lose is Supreme Good itself, love sented as basic points for the comprehension of the above any doubt, because it is placed in eternity. In the cosmic dimension, the symbol is connected to nature itself, to the concep- Thus, God is the only good in which the iniancy tions of landscapes, of the structuring of forces that is possible of being redeemed.
So, the idea of origi- shape the world. Spoken symbolism thus refers back to manifestation of the sa- [As to the spirit, we accuse him of sin when we discover cred, to hierophanies, where the sacred is shown in a that he, leaving all higher goods, prefers the lower ones, fragment of the cosmos, which, in return, loses its con- to enjoy them. For this reason, what need is there to crete limits, gets charged with innumerable meanings, investigate the origin of the impulse through which the integrates and unifies the greatest possible number of will withdraws from the incommutable good to the mu- the sectors of anthropocosmic experience.
Ricoeur, table good, when we recognize that it is from nowhere , p. From the relationship with the In that discussion, the One Ring as a symbol of world, the individual who dreams establishes his own power, and this power expressed in iniancy for the relationship, recreating the world in his wonderings, domain of land, men, and knowledge,19 is radically not contemplating the world and perceiving another the symbol of Evil.
Evil, after all. Gandalf, the Grey, one of the protagonist Wiz- the world; I explore my own sacrality in deciphering ards of the narrative, shows them to Hobbit Frodo that of the world. The inscriptions are: To forge the One Ring is to the basic novelty of the description of mystery.
To carry its power is to deliver a destiny registered in itself. The dark poem of the One Ring Unlike the two other modalities of symbols, hieropha- expresses its domination power through the word. In poetry the symbol is caught at the three scenes that show the interaction between those moment when it is a welling up of language.
Ricoeur, two levels, namely regarding the temptation offered , pp. In all three scenes a character Ring favors the dialogue in which we perceive the from the novel is strongly tempted to possess the One pertinence of this symbol of Power and Evil. The ini- Ring, even suffering the consequences of his action.
Sauron, the Lord of Dark. The lust for power that one for the dark Lord on his dark throne conditions evil establishes the temptation of bondage in the land of Mordor where the shadows lie. There are warfronts in several points, all led already shows its more central characteristic, bond- by Sauron, in the lands of Mordor, under the com- age. The One Ring is forged to enforce bondage, to mand of Orcs, Trolls, Balrogs, and bought or deceived dominate wills, lands, and knowledge.
Men, Elves, and verses the wills are presented initially as equals: Elves, Dwarves. It is an impossible task for the ego to incorporate and express the totality of self; many aspects of the self are simply unacceptable in society and within our family circle and are consequently relegated to the Shadow, where they will remain a latent force in the subconscious. In light of John Bowlby's attachment theories 24 it is highly likely that it is the child's fear of abandonment that prompts our need to repress our socially unacceptable parts of self.
The fear that mother will find some part of us unacceptable, thus leading to abandonment, is in likeness to the fear of death as being abandoned as an infant will most likely lead to death and a major force in the unconscious. As a defence- mechanism against abandonment, our superego develops and moulds itself into an 21 That part of the mind which is most conscious of self; spec. It is this defence-mechanism that enables us to live in a society that relies on mutual trust and collaboration, thus making it possible for us to have trust in others and take part in meaningful relationships.
However, in order to be able to create this acceptable version of our true self, it is necessary for us to repress a large part of our nature and consciousness.
This layer of unconsciousness where our repressed and less civilised part of the psyche dwells, is what Jung coined as being our shadow Thus, it is unavoidable for any individual to be in the world as a complete incarnation of self, as we are all subjected to the life-long struggle of balancing the needs of our ego with the urges and desires of our self.
In the words of Jung: In order to fully comprehend the polarized psyche as it is expressed individually and collectively, we must include into the discussion the archetype of shadow. Jung's construct of the shadow consists of aspects of our rejected self which are delegated to our unconscious psyche. Shadow is a central and universal archetype which has been personified in literature through countless destructive and malevolent characters.
However, the archetypal shadow figure is not necessarily of a destructive nature. It is not only possible but credible to find the shadow archetype in likeable characters such as J.
Rowling's incredibly popular Harry Potter. In the series the protagonist Harry Potter is deemed socially inferior by his foster family, who collectively project their shadow onto him, keeping him hidden in his room, repressed. This is the key to the archetype of shadow, it is the part of self that is kept hidden, repressed and unconscious.
We have to abandon the romantic dream that evil, conflict and aggression can be 25 Stevens, Archetype Revisited, London: In analytical psychology it is the process occurring by degrees over the lifespan whereby an individual achieves wholeness through the integration of consciousness and the collective unconscious, and it is symbolized by the mandala.
In a key passage, Carl Gustav Jung described it as follows: It is a blind abdication of the moral sense to conceive evil as always 'outside' i.
There are multitudes of examples in history where a nation or race has projected its own shadow onto another nation or race. This inability to accept and acknowledge our own shadow, leads us to see it in others.
It is a self-defence mechanism that is innate and unconscious and is the main cause of all major collective and individual conflicts, from office gossip to wars and genocide.
Consequently projection and rationalization often go hand in hand, thus in order to justify cruelty against those we project against, rationalization is the most commonly used weapon.
By finding intellectual reasons why it is acceptable or even necessary to punish or kill others, we are able to liberate ourselves of guilt, remorse and empathy, thereby repeating the cycle.
In order to become aware of shadow, we must realise what it is that attracts us to it, in other words, we must become able to resist temptation and achieve a higher degree of integrity. This component is key, not only in terms of individuation, but also in the Catholic faith to which Tolkien was deeply devoted. The Catholic notion that in order to resist evil one must be able to resist ones own desires, is one that Tolkien uses as a theme throughout The Lord of the Rings. This central idea in the trilogy is exemplified by the ability or inability of the protagonists to resist temptation.
We find that those characters who represent a higher level of consciousness and have successfully undertaken their personal individuation process such as Gandalf, Galadriel and later Aragorn are able to resist the temptation of the One Ring where others who have not yet fulfilled their quest for individuation such as Frodo, Gollum, Boromir and Saruman can not. Our shadow holds the key to our understanding the totality our self, which is the first step towards resolving inner and outer conflicts.
Through the acknowledgement and acceptance of our shadow, we can hope to understand our enemies and with this understanding of self and the other, peace has the opportunity of becoming a real possibility. One of the striking elements in The Lord of the Rings which points towards a literary interpretation of a Jungian model of the psyche, is the archetypical nature of all major characters we encounter throughout the story. The journey of transformation takes us through different stages of awareness and consciousness, with it's starting point in the familiar conscious state the Shire through to the deepest and darkest corners of the unconscious, symbolised by Mordor.
As we follow Sam and Frodo through Middle-earth, we find that their journey through unknown landscapes, mirrors the exploration of of the unconscious by the ego. Thus each new area of the unknown that the hobbits must transgress, is marked by different landscapes and inhabitants. In particular the number four seems to bear special significance as we encounter four rivers and fours forests.
If we accept the theory that the hobbits are symbolic of our ego and consciousness, then their journey through to Mordor becomes a description of the expansion of consciousness, a mystical journey of individuation. Furthermore, as we follow Frodo's journey from the Shire, through Middle- earth and into Mordor, we encounter different aspects of our psyche in the archetypical characters that we meet.
Each one of these characters marks a stage in the evolution of Frodo's consciousness. The first archetype we encounter is the spirit archetype represented by Gandalf.
It is at this time that Frodo becomes the possessor of the One Ring which brings with it the enormous power of the shadow.
Thus, it is no coincidence that Frodo's individuation process starts with his adherence of the One Ring and develops as he encounters different archetypical figures on his journey.
On the outer edges of the Shire, we meet the trickster archetype in the form of Tom Bombadil. This meeting marks the crossing of the first threshold into the unknown and the beginning of adventure. As the journey continues, Frodo meets the hero archetype in the guise of Aragorn who he befriends at The Prancing Pony. As we follow the fellowship's journey towards Mordor, the shadow aspects become stronger and more pronounced occurring in many different physical forms such as the Ring Wraiths, goblins, orcs, Uruk-hai and other proponents for shadow.
Furthermore, we find that the nine members of the fellowship are matched by their collective shadow consisting of the nine Ring Wraiths, whose faceless figures represent their loss of self. Whereas each of the members in the fellowship have distinct personalities, the nine Ring Wraiths are lost to themselves and are in complete servitude to Sauron.
The shadow archetypes are numerous but it is Gollum in particular who has the deepest effect on Frodo as he is the living embodiment of what Frodo is most afraid of becoming. Just as Frodo has his personal shadow in Gollum, so do most of the major protagonists in the story.
Each archetype is represented in their positive as well as negative form, thus each archetypical figure has a shadow self to conquer in order to achieve individuation. Some of the prominent archetypical figures we encounter are: The anima represented by Galadriel as the positive aspect and Shelob as the negative. The hero which is portrayed by Aragon as the positive aspect and the King of the Dead as the negative aspect.
The archetype of spirit is represented by Gandalf and his shadow Saruman and finally the archetype of self which refers to wholeness and is equivalent to the God image , the negative aspect of which is represented by the One Ring and its master Sauron.
The positive aspect of self is somewhat more ambivalent and difficult to pin-point with a high degree of certainty.
Due to the strong allusion to Jesus in the characters of Frodo and Aragorn who both risk their lives for the good of the greater whole , it could be argued that they both are representatives of the positive aspect of self. However, it is also possible to interpret Gandalf the White as a representation of the integrated self, in particular in view of his resurrection and role as a guide.
Thus The Lord of the Rings is a literary work so full of archetypes that one could be tempted to think that Tolkien had in depth knowledge of Jung's work, however there are no direct indications in Tolkien's work or history to sustain the hypothesis that Tolkien studied any of Jung's 29 In analytical psychology, the feminine principle as represented in the male unconscious, an archetype 2 forming part of the collective unconscious, representing the feminine aspect of human nature, characterized by imagination, fantasy, and play, manifesting itself in personified form in dreams and fantasies, and acting as a psychopomp connecting the ego and the unconscious.
As Carl Gustav Jung — described it: Nevertheless there is a strong link between the literary world of Tolkien and psychoanalytical world of Jung, which I will theorise springs from their common fascination with mythology.
Tolkien's aim with The Lord of the Rings was to create a mythology for England and in doing so he included into his story, albeit not necessarily in a conscious way, all the required elements for a precise literary reflection of a Jungian model of the psyche.
In fact, the whole of mythology could be taken as a sort of projection of the collective unconscious. You can learn all that there is to know about their ways in a month.
And yet, after a hundred years, they can still surprise you at a pinch. It is from here that we become aware of the existence of the rest of Middle-earth and everything in it, thus it is logical to view the shire as a symbol of consciousness. The shire itself is similar to the English countryside and consequently the landscape acts as a component in establishing a sense of familiarity and security, which are vital components of our conscious mind In the shire we encounter the Hobbits, a race with whom the reader can quickly feel at home.
They resemble the reader in regards to culture, language and biology and are good-natured, sensible and peaceful — all qualities most of us are happy to identify ourselves with. Furthermore, since the first volume of the trilogy is experienced through the eyes of Frodo, it is logical to view him as the main aspect of the ego-self Chiron pp.
Chiron p. We find that all four hobbits undergo an individuation process, often sparked by the interaction with different characters of Middle-earth. Merry and Pippin mature from their child-like consciousness to young adulthood through their imprisonment at the hands of the Uruk-hai and their meeting with Tree-beard. Sam's meeting with the elves initiates his individuation process, which is further reinforced when he fights against Shelob, the shadow archetype of anima.
His transformation from an adolescent to a responsible and mature hobbit culminates when Sam, believing Frodo to be dead, takes upon himself the responsibility of completing the quest alone Whereas the dwarfs and men represent the adult consciousness and the elves the most evolved, spiritual and balanced beings, the hobbits represent a childlike innocence.
In the meantime, during shooting, the screenplays would undergo many daily transformations, due to contributions from cast looking to further explore their characters.
Most notable amongst these rewrites was the character Arwen. Jackson began storyboarding the trilogy with Christian Rivers in August and assigned his crew to begin designing Middle-earth at the same time. Jackson hired longtime collaborator Richard Taylor to lead Weta Workshop on five major design elements: Most of the imagery in the films is based on their various illustrations.
Grant Major was charged with the task of converting Lee and Howe's designs into architecture, creating models of the sets, whilst Dan Hennah worked as art director, scouting locations and organizing the building of sets. Jackson wanted a gritty realism and historical regard for the fantasy, and attempted to make the world rational and believable. For example, the New Zealand army helped build Hobbiton months before filming began so the plants could really grow. Creatures were designed to be biologically believable, such as the enormous wings of the Fell beast to help it fly.
In total, Weta Workshop created 48, pieces of armour, bows and 10, arrows. They also created many prosthetics, such as pairs of Hobbit feet for the lead actors, as well as many ears, noses and heads for the cast, and around 19, costumes were woven and aged.
Every prop was specially designed by the Art Department, taking the different scales into account. Principal photography for all three films was conducted concurrently in New Zealand from October 11 , through to December 22 , for days. Pick-up shoots were conducted annually from to The trilogy was shot at over different locations, with seven different units shooting, as well as sound-stages around Wellington and Queenstown.
As well as Jackson directing the whole production, other unit directors included John Mahaffie , Geoff Murphy, Fran Walsh , Barrie Osbourne , Rick Porras and any other assistant director, producer or writer available. Jackson monitored these units with live satellite feeds, and with the added pressure of constant script re-writes and the multiple units interpreting his envisioned result, he only got around four hours of sleep a night.
Due to the remoteness of some of New Zealand's untamed landscapes, the crew would also bring survival kits in case helicopters couldn't reach the location to bring them home in time. The first film has around effects shots, the second , and the third in total. The total increases to with the extended editions. The crew, led by Jim Rygiel and Randy Cook, worked long and hard hours, often overnight, to produce special effects within a short space of time.
Jackson's overactive imagination was a driving force. For example, several major shots of Helm's Deep were produced within the last six weeks of post-production of The Two Towers , and the same happened again within the last six weeks on The Return of the King. Post-production would have the benefit for a full year on each film before their respective December releases, often finishing in October—November, with the crew immediately going to work on the next film.
Later on, Jackson would move to London to advise the score and continued editing, whilst having a computer feed for discussions to The Dorchester Hotel, and a "fat pipe" of internet connections from Pinewood Studios to look at the special effects. He had a Polycom video link and 5. The extended editions also had a tight schedule at the start of each year to complete special effects and music. To avoid pressure, Jackson hired a different editor for each film.
This was the final area of shaping of the films, when Jackson realised that sometimes the best scripting could be redundant on screen, as he picked apart scenes every day from multiple takes. Editing on the first film was relatively easygoing, with Jackson coming up with the concept of an Extended Edition later on, although after a screening to New Line they had to re-edit the beginning for a prologue.
The Two Towers was always acknowledged by the crew as the most difficult film to make, as "it had no beginning or end", and had the additional problem of inter-cutting storylines appropriately. Later, Saruman's demise was controversially cut from the cinema edition but included in the extended edition when Jackson felt it was not starting the third film effectively enough.
As with all parts of the third film's post-production, editing was very chaotic. The first time Jackson actually saw the completed film was at the Wellington premiere. Many filmed scenes remain unused, not included even in the Extended Editions. The main reason they weren't included was because they tended to change the plot from Tolkien's original storyline, therefore being unfaithful to the books.
Peter Jackson has stated that he would like to include some of these unused scenes in a future 'Ultimate Edition' home video release probably High Definition of the film trilogy. They will not be re-inserted into the movies but available for viewing separately. This edition will also include outtakes. Howard Shore composed the trilogy's music. He was hired in August and visited the set, and watched the assembly cuts of Films 1 and 3.
Although the first film had some of its score done in Wellington, the trilogy's score was mostly recorded in Watford Town Hall and mixed at Abbey Road Studios. Jackson planned to advise the score for six weeks each year in London, although for The Two Towers he stayed As a Beatles fan, Jackson had a photo tribute done there on the zebra crossing. Even actors Billy Boyd , Viggo Mortensen , Liv Tyler , Miranda Otto extended cuts only for the latter two and Peter Jackson for a single gong sound in the second film contributed to the score.
Fran Walsh and Philippa Boyens also wrote the lyrics to various music and songs, which David Salo translated into Tolkien's languages. The third film's end song, Into the West , was a tribute to a young filmmaker Jackson and Walsh befriended named Cameron Duncan , who died of cancer in Shore composed a main theme for the Fellowship rather than many different character themes, and its strength and weaknesses in volume are depicted at different points in the trilogy.
On top of that, individual themes were composed to represent different cultures. Infamously, the amount of music Shore had to write every day for the third film increased dramatically to around seven minutes.
Sound technicians spent the early part of the year trying to find the right sounds: Some sounds were unexpected: In addition, there was ADR for most of the dialogue. The technicians worked with New Zealand locals to get many of the sounds. They re-recorded sounds in abandoned tunnels for an echo-like effect in the Moria sequence. They spent time recording sounds in a graveyard at night, and also had construction workers drop stone blocks for the sounds of boulders firing and landing in The Return of the King.
Mixing generally took place between August and November at "The Film Mix", before Jackson commissioned building a new studio in Annoyingly, the building wasn't fully completed as they started mixing for The Return of the King.