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Every correct sentence must have at least one independent clause. A dependent clause also contains a verb but cannot stand alone as a sentence. A complete sentence requires one independent clause, but more complex sentences will also include something else: Without an independent clause, you have a sentence fragment. This is a fragment: Although she didn't have much work experience. Modifier A modifier provides additional information in a sentence, beyond the core subject and verb.
The simplest example is an adjective. For example, in the phrase the happy child, the word happy, an adjective, is a modifier. Modifiers can also be more complex: The large dog, which has black fur, is a Labrador. The modifier which has black fur is called a nonessential modifier. If you remove it from the sentence, the core of the sentence still makes sense: The large dog is a Labrador. Compare that to this sentence: The job that she started last week is much harder than her previous job.
In this sentence, that she started last week is called an essential modifier. Why is this one essential? Look what happens when you remove it from the sentence: The job? What job? If you haven't already specified a particular job, then the meaning of the sentence is murky. This is the hallmark of an essential modifier: Sentence Core The core of a sentence consists of any independent clauses along with some essential modifiers.
This is the bare minimum needed in order to have a coherent sentence. Any nonessential modifiers are stripped out of the sentence core. See more on sentence core in Chapter 4 of this guide. Conjunction Conjunctions are words that help to stick parts of sentences together.
He worked hard, and a raise was his reward. Coordinating conjunctions, such as and, can glue two independent clauses together. Both he worked hard and a raise was his reward are independent clauses. Modifiers can be connected to independent clauses by subordinating conjunctions. You saw an example of this before: Although she didn't have much work experience, she was offered the job.
The word although is a subordinating conjunction. Other examples include because, while, though, unless, before, after, and if.
You'll learn more about conjunctions in Chapters 3 and 4 of this guide. Marker This one is not an official grammar term, but it's important. On occasion, this book will talk about certain kinds of markers. For example, the word unlike is a comparison marker; when you see unlike, you should think about comparisons. Keep a list, make flash cards, record it however you prefer— but do record and study the fact that this particular marker should have made you think about a certain grammar issue.
That's all to start. Yes, technically, we did sneak more than five terms into that list. The terms are all related, though. If you run across other unfamiliar terms, you can look them up in the glossary at the end of this guide.
A Closer Look A clear sentence is transparent—the author's intended meaning shines through. On the GMAT, however, either the original sentence or its variations may muddy the waters. One of your tasks is to choose the answer choice that conveys a logical and clear meaning. Consider this sentence: Tomorrow, she bought some milk.
No grammar rule is violated in that sentence, but the sentence doesn't make any sense! Either she bought the milk in the past or she will buy the milk in the future. You know the sentence is wrong because the meaning is illogical. If the meaning of the original sentence is clear, start looking for grammar issues.
If, however, the original sentence is confusing, you will need to discern the author's intent. Fortunately, this intent will not be buried too deeply. After all, the correct sentence has to be one of the five choices. Most instances of meaning errors fall into one of three major categories: Choose your words 2. Place your words 3. If a word has more than one meaning, is the author using that word correctly, to indicate the right meaning? The GMAT rarely tests you on pure vocabulary, but very occasionally, it tries to pull a trick on you by switching a particular word and its cousin.
For example: The second sentence, which is shorter and punchier, may look preferable. Unfortunately, it is wrong! But the appropriate phrase is economic considerations—that is, monetary considerations.
Certain helping verbs, such as may, will, must, and should, provide another way for the GMAT to test meaning. These helping verbs express various levels of certainty, obligation, and reality. Simply by swapping these verbs, the GMAT can completely change the meaning of the sentence. Notice that the second sentence cannot be correct. On the other hand, the use of must in the first sentence indicates a legally binding obligation imposed upon the plaintiff. Thus, you should go with must, whether the original sentence used must or not.
Example 2 Actual: The first sentence could be said by someone who is unsure whether Chris and Jad have actually met: Place Your Words Beware of words that move from one position to another.
The placement of a single word can alter the meaning of a sentence. ALL the children are covered in mud. The children are ALL covered in mud. In these sentences, changing the placement of all shifts the intent from how many children all of them to how the children are covered in mud all over. Consider another example: In the first sentence, only indicates that the council alone votes on Thursdays as opposed to the board, perhaps, which can vote any other day, but not Thursdays.
In the second sentence, only indicates that the council does not vote on any day but Thursday. If a word changes its position in the answer choices, consider whether the change has an impact on the meaning of the sentence. Look out especially for short words such as only and all that quantify nouns or otherwise restrict meaning.
At a broader level, pay attention to overall word order. All the words in a sentence could be well-chosen, but the sentence could still be awkward or ambiguous. What does the phrase to city officials mean? Did the city officials receive the right to make legal petitions?
Or did someone else receive the right to make petitions to the officials? Either way, the correct sentence should resolve the ambiguity: Match Your Words Sentences generally contain pairs of words or phrases that must match. As you saw in an example earlier in this chapter, a verb must match the time frame of the overall sentence. These matches also have grammatical implications. What's wrong with the following comparison? Unlike Alaska, where the winter is quite cold, the temperature in Florida rarely goes below freezing.
It's illogical to compare a state to the temperature in another state. A similar matching principle holds for other grammatical connections e.
Future chapters will explore each type of connection in turn; for now, remember to test the meaning of any potential connection. Connected words must always make sense together. Avoid Redundancy Another aspect of meaning is redundancy. Each word in the correct choice must be necessary to the meaning of the sentence. If a word can be removed without subtracting from the meaning of the sentence, it should be eliminated. Redundancy goes beyond mere concision—redundancy confuses the meaning, causing the reader to ask: A common redundancy trap on the GMAT is the use of words with the same meaning: Since rose and increase both imply growth, only one is needed.
Since sum and total convey the same meaning, only one is needed. Pay attention to expressions of time. It is easy to sneak two redundant time expressions into an answer choice especially if one expression is in the non- underlined part, or if the two expressions do not look like each other: This does not mean that you can never repeat time expressions in a sentence; just be sure that you are doing so for a meaningful reason. Also pay attention to transition words, such as contrast words.
What is wrong with the sentence below? Although she studied night and day for three months, yet she did not do well on her exam.
The word although already conveys the coming contrast; it is unnecessary to use the second contrast word, yet. Each sentence is followed by a boldface sample answer choice that may change the meaning. Select A if the original version is correct, B if the boldface version is correct, C if neither is correct, and D if both are correct. If you select A , explain what is wrong with the boldface version. If you select B , explain how the boldface version corrects the original version.
If you select C , explain why both versions are incorrect. Some questions refer to rules and distinctions that will be discussed in upcoming chapters. No matter how much work it may require, getting an MBA turns out to be a wise investment for most people. Even though it requires much work 2. The driver took the people for a ride who had been waiting. Rising costs to raw materials may impel us to rise prices farther.
She is the most dedicated gardener on the block, watering the more than 50 plants in her yard every day. Hector remembers San Francisco as it was when he left 10 years ago.
Students at Carver High School are encouraged to pursue only those extracurricular activities from which stems success in college applications. Look for issues outlined in this chapter.
It is possible that the earthquake may have caused the building's collapse. The original sentence does not say that getting an MBA requires a lot of work. The expression no matter how much work it may require simply says that the amount of work whether large or small does not matter.
The revised version eliminates the word may, so that the new sentence does say that an MBA requires a lot of work. In the original sentence, the modifier who had been waiting does not clearly modify the people.
It appears, illogically, to modify the closer noun the ride. The boldface version moves who had been waiting next to the people, thus making clear that it is the people who had been waiting. The boldface version makes several changes to the meaning of the original sentence. Costs to X are what X has to pay, whereas costs of X are how much somebody must pay to buy X. The latter meaning makes much more sense here, because raw materials are being paid for, not doing the paying.
Raise is a verb that always takes a direct object: The Fed subject raised the interest rate object in March. Rise is used only in contexts where there is no direct object: Interest rates subject rose in March. In this sentence, prices are a direct object, so the verb must be raise. Farther refers only to distance I can throw a javelin farther than you can whereas further refers to degree of something other than distance We need further time and money for this project.
The original version contains the phrase the more than 50 plants. Here the words more than modify the number The sentence therefore means that she waters her plants, of which there are more than In the boldface version, the phrase changes to watering more than the 50 plants.
Here the words more than are separated from the number 50, and therefore do not modify that number. The new version says that she waters something more than i. Both versions potentially make sense though one implies she is a very dedicated gardener , so either version could be correct. The boldface version changes to the original version, but the new version could make sense. Another important change in meaning comes because the revised version takes out the words it i.
Both versions are correct! There is no change in meaning. Eliminate redundancy. You do not need both dropped and decrease, since both words convey the same idea.
For the same reason, you do not need both after and subsequently. The earthquake may have caused the building's collapse. It is possible that and may both express the same level of uncertainty, so you can remove one of them without changing the intended meaning.
No Though at the beginning of the sentence. Using both Though and yet is redundant. It is preferable to keep yet in order to delineate the contrast clearly; otherwise, you might mistakenly consider the phrase with the rise of fuel costs as part of the first clause. The verb grew already conveys the idea of an increase, so there is no need to use the noun rise.
The subject is the noun that performs the action expressed by the verb: The subject, the dog, is performing the action of running. Moreover, the subject and the verb must agree in number: How does the GMAT make things more complicated?
Subject and Verb Must Both Exist If a sentence is missing the subject or the verb, the sentence is a fragment; in other words, it is not a complete sentence! On the GMAT, the correct answer must be a complete sentence, or independent clause. The GMAT might disguise the error by dropping the verb: The cat sitting by the stairs. Wait a minute, what about sitting?
Sitting certainly looks like a verb. It is not, however, a working verb, a verb that can run a sentence by itself. Here's an example of a working verb: In this sentence, the word watched is a working verb. Here's another example of a working verb: In this sentence, the words was sitting make up the full verb form. For now, just remember that an -ing word by itself is never a working verb: The cat sitting by the stairs is not a sentence.
These are also not complete sentences: WHICH will be approved tomorrow. Because and which are connecting words. They add extra information to a sentence, but they are not sentences by themselves. They're examples of modifiers, which you will learn about in the next chapter.
The correct answer must contain at least one independent clause; if an answer choice does not, eliminate it! The dog runs out of the house.
A plural subject requires a plural verb form: The dogs run out of the house. You already know this; you would never write the dog run out or the dogs runs out.
The GMAT, therefore, has to try to obscure these errors so that some people will fall into a trap. The GMAT might hide the subject, so that you are unsure whether the subject is singular or plural. If you do not know the number of the subject, then you will not be able to select the verb form that agrees with it.
What is the subject, discovery or new medicines? It makes as much sense to say the discovery was vital as it does to say the new medicines were vital. In this case, The discovery…was is the correct subject—verb pair because the noun medicines is part of the prepositional phrase of new medicines.
A noun in a prepositional phrase cannot be the subject of the sentence. Are these sentences both correct?
Lin and Guy drive to work. Lin, as well as Guy, drive to work every day. The first sentence is a correct example of a compound subject: Lin and Guy together function as the subject of the sentence.
Compound subjects are always plural because at least two nouns function as the subject. A compound subject must be connected by the word and, but the second sentence uses the modifier as well as Guy.
Only Lin qualifies as the subject, so the sentence is incorrect. LIN, as well as Guy, drives to work every day. Subject Modifier Verb A sentence can also contain a compound verb two or more verbs that all point to the same subject.
That last sentence contains both a compound subject and a compound verb. If the writer inserts enough distance between the two portions of a compound subject or verb, it could be easy to make a mistake.
Read on to learn how the GMAT does this. If you learn to ignore these words when looking for a subject, you'll be much less likely to pick the wrong noun as the subject.
Further, the GMAT often puts a significant number of words in front of the subject you want. In these cases, you have to ignore the warmup that comes before the subject of the sentence. There are a few common types of middlemen and warmups. Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase is a group of words headed by a preposition. A list of common prepositions is included in Appendix B.
Prepositions are followed by nouns or pronouns, which complete the phrase. Prepositional phrases modify or describe other parts of the sentence. A noun in a prepositional phrase will never be the main subject of the sentence.
In the example above, the subject is houses plural and the correct verb is are also plural. Dependent Clauses Dependent clauses, which begin with connecting words such as who or because, cannot stand alone as sentences. Nor are they part of the main subject or main verb; rather, they are always attached to independent clauses. Look at the first sentence in this paragraph: If a dependent clause is stripped out of a sentence, what remains is still a complete sentence. Try another example: Because she studied hard, she earned a good score on the test.
What is the dependent clause? What is the independent clause complete sentence? She earned a good score on the test. Other Modifiers Other words can also function as modifiers, which add extra information to the sentence. Modifiers will be covered in depth in Chapter 4. Use Structure to Decide Consider the following sentence: However, new lands is in a prepositional phrase modifying the noun conquest. Since a noun in a prepositional phrase cannot be the subject of the sentence with limited idiomatic exceptions that you'll learn about later , the subject must be conquest: Do not fall for tempting nouns, such as new lands, inserted to distract you!
Now consider this example: You have to match up two subject—verb pairs on this one. First, find the main subject and match it with the appropriate verb: Next, match up the subject and the verb in the dependent clause: Mid-Chapter Quiz: Test Your Skills Fix the following sentences.
The recent string of burglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, have inspired the outspoken resident to call a tenants meeting. A new textbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence assigned by our instructor.
The proliferation of computer games designed to involve many players at once were first developed before the widespread availability of high-speed internet connections. Answer Key: Test Your Skills Changes made to the original sentence are underlined. The recent string of burglaries, in addition to poor building maintenance, has inspired the outspoken resident to call a tenants meeting. Omit the middlemen of burglaries and in addition to poor building maintenance.
A simple fix is to add a form of the verb to be, such as was. Computer games designed to involve many players at once were first developed before the widespread availability of high-speed internet connections. The subject and verb have to make sense together, but the original sentence says that the proliferation… were first developed; this is illogical. Rather, the computer games were developed. The corrected sentence is just one possible rewrite. Consider picking up this lesson again later today or tomorrow.
Building Complex Sentences How else can the test writers add complexity to sentences? Take a look at this example: Despite some initial concerns, the teacher is confident that her students mastered the lesson. The core structure of the sentence is this: In the real world, people will often drop the word that from the sentence structure: Wrong on the The teacher is confident her students mastered the lesson. This is acceptable in the real world, but it doesn't follow the strictest grammar conventions.
Technically, the missing that can make the sentence ambiguous; consider this example: I know Meryl Streep is an actor. Do you actually know Meryl Streep herself? Or do you know something about Meryl Streep? I know that Meryl Streep is an actor. When a sentence is trying to convey something more complex, the word that signals to the reader that more information is coming.
The teacher isn't just confident in her students in general. She is confident that they mastered the lesson. Two Independent Clauses Two complete sentences can be connected into one long sentence. Lin drove to work is a complete sentence. So is Guy rode his bike. Two complete sentences can be connected using a comma plus a conjunction such as but to create a compound sentence.
For And Nor But Or Yet So The English language contains many conjunctions; these seven are special because they are very common in the English language and because they can also be used to connect two independent clauses into one complex sentence. It is not acceptable, however, to connect two sentences using only a comma: Any GMAT answer choice that connects two independent clauses via only a comma is incorrect.
Pop quiz! Can you spot the error in the sentence below? The latest statistics released by the Labor Department indicate that producer prices rose rapidly last month, despite a generally weakening economy, some analysts contend that the economic Wrong: The sentence above is a run-on.
The example below strips the sentence to its core subject and verb components and adds the necessary conjunction: Here's another type of error the GMAT might throw at you: What's the problem with that sentence? It may look fine because it correctly contains a comma along with the conjunction and.
Unfortunately, the first half is not a complete sentence. Try to make it stand alone: You could fix the sentence by turning the first part into an independent clause: Cross off any answers that connect two independent clauses using only a comma. Semicolon You can also connect two independent clauses using a semicolon. The semicolon ; connects two closely related statements. Each statement must be able to stand alone as an independent sentence. For instance: Earl walked to school; he later ate his lunch.
Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; doing everything together. The second part of this sentence cannot stand on its own. Therefore, the two parts may not be connected by a semicolon.
Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; they do everything together. In the corrected example above, the two sentence parts can each stand alone. Therefore, they may be connected by a semicolon.
The semicolon is often followed by a transition expression, such as however, therefore, or in addition. In this way, the writer can modify the equal relationship that a bare semicolon implies.
Note that these transitional elements are not true conjunctions like and. As a result, you must use semicolons, not commas, to join the sentences: A rare but correct use of the semicolon is to separate items that themselves contain commas: Adding Modifiers Quick quiz: You first learned about them earlier in this chapter, in the Eliminate the Middlemen section.
Glance back through that section if your brain is swimming in all of these new grammar terms. Dependent clauses are modifiers; they add extra information to the sentence. In addition to independent clauses, GMAT SC sentences will also contain dependent clauses in order to make these sentences as complex and annoying! You'll learn all about these modifiers in the next chapter.
For now, concentrate on learning the core sentence structures discussed in this chapter so that you are fully prepared to add even more complexity when you move to Chapter 4. Then c determine whether the subject and the verb make sense together and d determine whether the subject agrees in number with the verb.
If the subject is singular, the verb form must be singular. If the subject is plural, the verb form must be plural. If the sentence is a fragment, or if the subject and verb do not make sense together, or if the subject and verb do not agree, e rewrite the sentence correcting the mistake. A venomous snake designated the emblem of the rebellion by the insurgency. A number of players on the team have improved since last season. Jack, along with some of his closest friends, is sharing a limo to the prom.
There is, according to my doctor, many courses of treatment available to me. After all the gardening we did, the sun shining on the flowerbeds make a beautiful sight. The decision to place the beautiful artifacts in out-of-the-way nooks around the mansion's various rooms was inspiring. Just around the corner is a fantastic bakery and a small supermarket. Fix the following sentences if necessary. Look for issues outlined in this chapter, including connecting words and connecting punctuation.
The music company was afraid of the accelerating decline of sales of compact disks would not be compensated by increased internet revenue. The petroleum distillates were so viscous, the engineers had to heat the pipe by nearly 30 degrees. The municipality's back-to-work program has had notable success, nevertheless, it is not suitable for a state-wide rollout for several reasons.
Historically, the Isle of Man had an economy based primarily on agriculture and fishing; now, one based on banking, tourism, and film production.
A venomous snake the emblem of the rebellion by the insurgency. A number of players on the team since last season. Jack, along with some of his closest friends, a limo to the prom. There , according to my doctor, many courses of treatment available to me. After all the gardening we did, the sun shining on the flowerbeds a beautiful sight. The decision to place the beautiful artifacts in out-of-the-way nooks around the mansion's various rooms inspiring.
Just around the corner a fantastic bakery AND a small supermarket. The word and makes a compound subject, which is plural. The music company was afraid THAT the accelerating decline of sales of compact disks would not be compensated by increased internet revenue. The original sentence has an independent clause The music company was afraid of the accelerating decline of sales of compact disks with another verb phrase—would not be compensated by increased internet revenue— inappropriately tacked on.
One way to fix the sentence is to replace the preposition of with that. The petroleum distillates were so viscous THAT the engineers had to heat the pipe by nearly 30 degrees. The original sentence is a run-on sentence. The municipality's back-to-work program has had notable success; nevertheless, it is not suitable for a state-wide rollout for several reasons. As a result, you need to use a semicolon, not a comma, before nevertheless.
Historically, the Isle of Man had an economy based primarily on agriculture and fishing; now, IT HAS one based on banking, tourism, and film production. Just like the words that come before a semicolon, the words that come after a semicolon must constitute a complete sentence. In the original sentence, the second part of the sentence does not form a valid independent clause. The Bentley trench, situated more than a mile and a half below sea level and completely covered by Antarctic glaciers, IS the lowest point on the planet not under the oceans.
The original sentence has an independent clause linked to a sentence fragment by the use of and. In the corrected version, one main clause combines all of the information given. Relative Pronouns Noun Modifier Markers: Prepositions and Participles Adverbial Modifiers Which vs. Although modifiers can be as simple as a single word an adjective or an adverb , GMAT sentences often contain several complex modifiers.
The modifier Tired out from playing basketball describes the noun Charles. It provides additional context as to why Charles decided to take a nap. Many modifiers answer the questions who, what, when, where, or why. Incorrectly used modifiers can lead to ambiguity or illogical meaning.
Adjectives and Adverbs Adjectives and adverbs are one-word modifiers. An adjective modifies only a noun or a pronoun, whereas an adverb modifies almost anything but a noun or a pronoun. These two types of modifiers illustrate the two broad categories of modifiers.
Noun modifiers, such as adjectives, modify only a noun or a pronoun. Adverbial modifiers, such as adverbs, can modify verbs, adjectives, prepositional phrases, even entire clauses, but they do not modify plain nouns. Here the adjective smart modifies the noun student, while the adverb quickly modifies the verb works.
Many adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the adjective. The GMAT will sometimes offer answers that use an adjective where an adverb is grammatically required and vice versa.
All of the following examples are correct, although they differ in meaning: Good is an adjective that modifies the noun person. Well is an adjective that modifies the noun Amy.
Well is an adverb that modifies the verb writes. On harder questions, the GMAT could provide two grammatically correct phrasings. For instance, which of these sentences is more logical? Max's grandmother is his supposed Irish ancestor. Max's grandmother is his supposedly Irish ancestor.
In the first option, the adjective supposed points to the noun ancestor, implying that Max's grandmother is not actually his ancestor. In the second option, the adverb supposedly points to the adjective Irish, implying that Max's grandmother is not actually Irish.
Logically, Max's grandmother has to be his ancestor; if she weren't, the sentence would call her his supposed grandmother.
Only the second option, then, has a sensible meaning: Max's grandmother is supposedly Irish but she may not be after all. Adjectives that have been observed alternating with their corresponding adverbs in released GMAT problems include corresponding, frequent, independent, rare, recent, seeming, separate, significant, supposed, and usual. If you spot an answer switching back and forth between the adjective and adverb forms of the same word, ask yourself what the word is modifying.
If it's modifying a noun by itself, use the adjective form. If it's modifying anything other than a noun or pronoun , use the adverbial form.
Noun Modifiers Adjectives are the most simple noun modifiers. Other types of noun modifiers act like long adjectives. Consider these examples you don't need to memorize the grammar terms: When you can ask a who, what, which, or where question about a noun, and the answer points to the modifier, you have a noun modifier. Think about the circumstances in which you would use each of the two sentences below: The cat, which lives next door, is very noisy.
The cat that lives next door is very noisy. In the first example, you would already have to know which cat the speaker is talking about. Just thought I'd mention it.
If three cats are playing in front of you, the speaker would specify the cat that lives next door, not the other two cats. If you take a nonessential modifier out of the sentence, you still retain the full meaning of the main part of the sentence: Nonessential modifiers are usually separated out from the rest of the sentence by commas. The second sentence includes an example of an essential modifier.
If you remove it from the sentence, then the meaning may be compromised. Essential modifiers are not usually separated out by commas. Position of Noun Modifiers The placement of modifiers is really a function of meaning. Place the modifier incorrectly and the sentence may have an illogical or ambiguous meaning. There are typically many nouns in a long sentence, so a noun modifier has to be placed in such a way that the reader knows exactly which noun is being modified. The practical result is that nouns and noun modifiers must be placed either right next to each other or very close together.
Remember this rule: Here's what can happen when a noun and its modifier break this rule: A hard worker and loyal team player, the new project was managed by Sue. The sentence begins with an opening modifier set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma. Who is a hard worker and loyal team player? Not the project! That's illogical. Instead, move the appropriate noun closer to the modifier: A hard worker and loyal team player, Sue managed the new project.
The majority of the time, a noun and its modifier will be placed right next to each other, with no other words intervening. In certain circumstances, though, a noun and its modifier may be separated by another modifier. The box of nails, which is nearly full, belongs to Jean.
The noun box has two modifiers: They can't both be placed right after the noun; one has to come first. An essential modifier trumps a nonessential modifier. Of nails is an essential modifier which box? In this case, the which modifier refers to the closest preceding main noun, box. Which of the options below is better? Jim biked along an old dirt road to get to his house, which cut through the woods.
To get to his house, Jim biked along an old dirt road, which cut through the woods. What cut through the woods? The road. Modifiers should be as close as possible to the nouns they modify, so the second option is preferable. To get to his house refers to the verb biked: He biked.
Possessive Nouns Are Not Nouns! Happy about his raise, Bill's celebration included taking his friends out to dinner.
Logically, the modifier happy about his raise should describe Bill. However, possessive nouns are actually adjectives, not nouns, and a noun modifier has to point to a noun. As it stands, the sentence technically and illogically says that Bill's celebration is happy about his raise. Here is a corrected sentence: Happy about his raise, Bill celebrated by taking his friends to dinner. Noun Modifier Markers: Relative Pronouns Noun modifiers are often introduced by relative pronouns such as the following: Which That Who Whose Whom Where When The words above always signal noun modifiers with the exception of the word that, which can sometimes signal other structures.
A noun followed immediately by the word that signals a noun modifier. A verb followed immediately by the word that signals the more complex sentence structure subject—verb—THAT— subject—verb—object see Chapter 3 for more.
The pronouns who and whom must modify people. On the other hand, the pronoun which cannot modify people. Perhaps surprisingly, the pronoun whose can modify either people or things: Which or whom sometimes follow prepositions: In these cases, use in which rather than where.
The pronoun when can be used to modify a noun event or time, such as period, age, , or decade. In these circumstances, you can also use in which instead of when. Prepositions and Participles Both prepositional phrases and participle modifiers can be noun modifiers or adverbial modifiers, but they do follow some specific rules.
In general, if a preposition immediately follows a noun, then the prepositional phrase modifies that noun. Can you spot the noun modifiers in the following sentence? Researchers discovered that the most common risk factor resulting in cholera epidemics is the lack of a clean water supply.
The adjective common describes the risk factor. The adverb most refers to common. What about the more complex noun modifiers? The word resulting is a participle. Note that it is not separated out from the rest of the sentence by a comma.
Therefore, resulting in cholera epidemics signals a noun modifier; it refers to the risk factor. The prepositional phrase of a clean water supply modifies the noun lack. Participles can be present or past: Past participles most commonly end in —ed, but there are a number of irregular verb forms. These participles can function as verbs, nouns, or various types of modifiers. She is playing soccer. Any —ing word functioning as part of the verb form will have another verb immediately before it, as in the is playing example.
If no prior verb exists, then the —ing word is not acting as a verb. Any -ing words that are not verbs and not separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma will either be a noun, as in Playing soccer is fun, or modify another noun, as in The girl playing soccer is my sister.
Past participles, or —ed words, are not tested as frequently as —ing words, but follow the same general rules, except that a past participle can be a verb all by itself but it cannot function as a noun. She played the lottery yesterday. Who was exhausted? She was. However, the context of the rest of the sentence matters.
A sentence such as exhausted from her job, she has red hair would not be acceptable on the GMAT. As a result, it is better to think of this modifier as applicable to the whole main clause.
Because she was exhausted, she bought a lottery ticket? They can also modify adjectives, prepositional phrases, clauses…anything that isn't just a plain noun. These modifiers also answer questions, such as how, when, where, or why an action occurred, but this time, the answer will point to something other than a plain noun. Here are a few examples: Adverbial modifiers do not have the same placement constraints as noun modifiers.
A sentence typically contains only one or two main clauses, so adverbial modifiers can be placed more freely without creating meaning issues in the sentence. As long as the adverbial modifier clearly points to one particular verb or clause, the placement is acceptable. In fact, only the first example in the list above places the modifier right next to the verb, and even that was not required. It is possible to place adverbial modifiers poorly, though.
What's wrong with this sentence? He walked and caught up with his sister more rapidly. The placement of the modifier rapidly indicates that he caught up with his sister more rapidly…than what? Try a harder one: The CEO declared that everyone had to work every day through the holidays to make the production deadline, but in calling for such an extreme measure, the company's employees were upset to the point of mutiny. Such modifiers refer to the entire clause to which they are attached.
Which clause is that? The sentence has two: Logically, the CEO called for this extreme measure, not the employees. However, because the —ing modifier falls after the conjunction connecting the two clauses, the modifier refers to the employees, not to the CEO.
The sentence could be fixed in multiple ways: In an extreme measure, the CEO declared that everyone had to work every day through the holidays to make the production deadline; her employees were upset to the point of mutiny. The CEO declared that everyone had to work every day through the holidays to make the production deadline, but in calling for such an extreme measure, she upset her employees to the point of mutiny.
Both of the correct sentences properly attribute the extreme move to the CEO, not to the employees. In short, an adverbial modifier points to the right verb or clause as long as it is not structurally closer to some other verb or clause.
An adverbial modifier does not necessarily have to be placed as close as possible to what it modifies. Because the engineer fixed the problem, he earned a promotion. Fixing the problem resulted in earning the promotion. Because the team was exhilarated, it celebrated.
The exhilaration led to the celebration. Whichever statement comes first in the sentence, whether modifier or main clause, is the instigating action, and whichever comes second, is the effect or result. Picture a woman ice skating. Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions.
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Join a free live webinar and learn the most important keys to master the Data Sufficiency and Critical Reasoning questions. Save your spot today! Limited for the first 99 registrants. Christina scored by having clear ability milestones and a trackable plan to achieve the same. Attend this webinar to learn how to build trackable milestones that leverage your strengths to help you get to your target GMAT score. Get personalized insights on how to achieve your Target Quant Score.
Ends April 21st Code: Where to start? What's your thoughts about these books? Where do you think is better to start from? I have 2 months, target: GMAT 1: GRE 1: Q V If you want to do a little studying first, so that you can familiarize yourself with the basic content and question types, then that's okay - but you shouldn't wait too long to take that initial CAT.
That score will give us a good sense of your natural strengths and weaknesses and will help provide a basis for comparison as you continue to study. Once you have those scores, you should report back here and we can come up with a study plan.
I'd like to know a bit more about your timeline and goals: GMAT assassins aren't born, they're made, Rich. Hi First Read manhattan SC. Once you complete one topic then its has OG reference question topic wise. Same for CR and RC. In parallel you can read manhattan quant books and then solve OG questions. Good Luck.
Many Test Takers find that they actually end up needing more study time than they initially plan for - and that initial practice CAT score will help to define how much time you might need, so we should start there. Stanford '21 , Wharton '21 , Booth '21 , Darden ' Hi Kalian, Two months should be good enough to improve your score. You can know your weaknesses and work on them. If you are willing to study dedicatedly for Three months, you are sure to achieve your goal.
If you are willing, there are some great GMAT prep companies that can help you with your preparation. In order to make an informed decision I would highly encourage you to go to their websites and try on their free trial and decide for yourself which one do you like better.
I must add that if you are particularly looking to discover and improve on your weak areas in quant; a subscription to GMATCLUB tests is the best way to do that. They are indeed phenomenal and will not only pinpoint your weak areas but also help you improve on them.
Further taking multiple mocks might help. Further another advantage of taking many mocks is to build up your stamina. Lastly I would also encourage you practice all the questions twice from the latest version of OG and the verbal review. Here is a link that will help you with your decision. All the best. Is it necessary to buy the latest version? Manhattan SC - book is available free online.. Hi, I suggest to start with official guide first. Later you can switch to Manhattan PDFs.
Its always good to start with official material and then switch to other materials. Print view. First unread post. Display posts from previous: All posts 1 day 7 days 2 weeks 1 month 3 months 6 months 1 year Sort by Author Post time Subject Ascending Descending. Search for: Apr 15 10 keys to nail Data Sufficiency and Critical Reasoning questions. Question banks. My Bookmarks.
Important topics. Gekko Intern B Joined: India Concentration: General Management, Technology Schools: Information Technology Computer Software. While doing the questions, focus on the followings: Why did you got a particular question wrong. What concept a question tested 3. What all you could learn from a question does not matter if you got a question right or wrong 4.
Keep an error log as well. Please post if any further doubt. Really useful! I'll start to prepare it from half July till the end of August due to the fact that I have not much time unfortunately.. I'm full of exams and have to graduate..