Thomas Pynchon (Bloom's Modern Critical Views). Read more American Postmodernity: Essays on the Recent Fiction of Thomas Pynchon · Read more. Thomas Pynchon - Mason & Dixon v Thomas Pynchon (Bloom's Modern Critical Views). Read more · Letters to Thomas Pynchon and other stories. NY Times | meteolille.info 11 March New York Times Review. Gravity's Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon. One of the.
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PDF | Two versions of 'V.' were issued in , one in the U.S. and one in England, because errors that had crept into the first American edition. Pynchon Thomas. 1. ONE summer afternoon Mrs Oedipa Maas came home from a Tupperware party whose hostess had put perhaps too much. Editorial Reviews. meteolille.info Review. Having just been released from the Navy, Benny V. - Kindle edition by Thomas Pynchon. Download it once and read it.
So, knowledge? Pynchon has it, and shows it in endless waves of connective tissues.
I don't claim to understand all of it. But I have to thank him for my new-found way of thinking about this reading business of mine, my yo-yoing along the V shaped tracks of books like his, picking up bits and pieces with every passing over the same old stomping grounds. There's a surface of tin cans and plastic rubbish in those lands, and a wind whistling of ages past that sounds all the clearer the longer you walk. You can walk forward, and you can walk back, but to tread the same way twice is an impossibility, for better or for worse.
View all 67 comments. What does it mean? Does it have to mean anything? How does it all connect? Ironically, if not intentionally, the inability to determine what and why, as well as who, is part of its design.
Pynchon mightn't want to answer all the questions he or life asks. However, that doesn't mean there isn't a lot of food for thought in the novel. Pynchon actually tells us a lot all of the time. Like "Ulysses", there are lots of hints and clues and allusions, and it's easy to miss them, if you're not paying attention to the flow of the novel and taking it all in.
It's definitely a work that benefits from multiple readings. On the anniversary of the sacred day upon which a Virgin, Mary, gave birth to Christ and thus started what would become Christianity, both Catholic and Protestant , Profane is wearing black levis, a suede jacket, sneakers and a big cowboy hat, a sort of bohemian uniform at the time.
He drops into the Sailors' Arms, which welcomes sailors from the tempestuous sea onto solid ground. For them, it's a dream come true, where the barmaids "all love to screw" and "remind you that every day is Christmas Eve". This tavern is a haven and safe harbour. The big-breasted women here provide comfort and succour to men, something we can easily get used to and take for granted.
A Form Guide to Stencil Sixty pages later, Pynchon introduces us to the second protagonist, Herbert Stencil, a man who refers to himself in the third person, which allows him to create a repertoire of bad faith or inauthentic identities or Sartrean "impersonations".
He has no one solid persona, but somehow the ability to think of himself as and be not just the third person, but a first, a second, a fourth and a fifth permits him to function reasonably adequately if not always normally for a male, and so the multiple personalities "keep Stencil in his place".
When we meet him, however, his "place" is not static, it's dynamic. He is on a single-minded quest to find evidence of a woman named V. The next paragraph gives us even more clues as to the nature of the pursuit or quest in general: She would be the one doing the detective work. Here, a male is the subject and a woman is the object of the quest or pursuit.
While both Oedipa and Stencil take their quests seriously, they meet with mixed success perhaps a hallmark of a post-modern fiction. However, Pynchon seems to venerate Oedipa more highly.
For all his earnestness, profundity and third person pretension, Stencil is a clown or a fool to match Profane's picaresque schlemiel. The quest for man, if not necessarily for Stencil, is a quest for sexual pleasure, for sexual delight, for the sexual conquest of woman. Stencil is looking for one woman. However, because she is of his father's generation and vintage, you have to ask whether in reality he is trying potentially on behalf of all men to understand the mystery of sexual attraction, the mystery of womanhood and the place of women in society and, if only from a male perspective, the role of woman in a man's life.
The Birth of Venus From an etymological perspective, the word "venery" derives from the Latin "veneris", which in turn derives from the Roman god of love and sex, Venus, who in turn was modelled on the Greek god, Aphrodite. The connotation of pursuit is thought to come from the resemblance of the word to the Latin "venari", which means to hunt. Not coincidentally, the Botticelli painting "The Birth of Venus" features in the novel.
According to Robert Graves, Venus was also adapted from the pagan sea-goddess, Marian, who was often disguised as a merry-maid or mermaid.
Suffice it to say, this Venus rose from the sea, hence the shell in the painting. If we go back further in time, we meet another goddess Astarte, whom the Egyptians worshipped as a goddess of war and tenacity, while the Semites worshipped her as a goddess of love and fertility. It is also linked to the goddesses and names Astoreth, Ishtar and Esther. Esther is the name of a character in the novel, partly Jewish, she gets a nose job in an attempt by her plastic surgeon who wishes to make her look more Irish , while a model of Astarte is the figurehead of the xebec or sailing ship upon which Stencil's father Sidney died in the Mediterranean off Malta in In a way, Sidney's death might be a return to the embrace of Venus after all, she was a V and the great unknown of the ocean?
Opposing Protagonists Profane and Stencil inevitably meet each other over the course of the novel and collaborate in Stencil's quest as it moves from Manhattan to Malta. They approach life and womanhood in contrasting ways.
Here's a summary of Profane: Aimless, directionless, concerned with the present, existential, free-style, random, improvisatory, profane, superficial, more interested in the surface, physical, decadent, irrational. And Stencil: Motivated, purposeful, concerned with the past, in pursuit of understanding and meaning, structured, organised, profound, more interested in depth, metaphysical, civilised, rational. Despite their differences, they join together in Stencil's quest.
What they share, obviously, is their manhood, the fact that they are men in a patriarchal society. Whatever their differences as men, they are on the inside, whereas women, in contrast, are on the outside, subjugated, unable to exercise political power or social influence, whatever other means of persuasion they might have at their disposal. Not who, but what: God grant that I may never be called upon to write the answer, either here or in any official report. He was raised motherless, having been born in , which we are also told was the year "Victoria" died.
Stencil, speaking in the third person, says: The question is ridiculous. Does it mean we shouldn't ask the question? Are Stencil and Pynchon simply steering us away from the obvious or the possible?
Is Pynchon suggesting that fiction at least post-modern fiction need not be obliged to offer up answers, that not every quest leads to its Holy Grail? I don't think I'm giving anything away when I say that there's not just one V, but potentially many. Or at least, Young Stencil finds clues as to the existence of many candidates. Does it make any difference though? Does it matter who this particular woman, this V.
Does the identity of any individual V. Is he, like us, simply trying to understand womanhood in all of its complexity?
Animation and Agitation Whatever the answer, Stencil's quest animates and energises him. Beforehand, he had been inanimate: Work, the chase Only that what love there was to Stencil had become directed entirely inward, toward this acquired sense of animateness He tried not to think, therefore, about any end to the search.
Approach and avoid. He regarded V. He viewed her as an agent of chaos who, in her different manifestations, always arrived at a time when the world was in a state of siege. She had an unerring ability to appear when the patriarchal world of Western Imperialism was under threat, whether by civil war, rebellion or revolution. In a way, V. At a more generalised level, V might represent the relationship between the Animate and the Inanimate, between Life and Death, between Eros and Thanatos.
The Woman Question It's interesting that neither Stencil really wants to find a definitive answer to their particular woman question. They are males, and they can't see beyond an era during which men are firmly ensconced in the saddle of power and influence. There is no preparedness to share power or to improve relationships between the sexes. The nature of womanhood is therefore a question that remains unsolved at the end of the novel. Women remain a mystery to men, perhaps because they men don't try hard enough or don't really want to understand.
They are unable to change their own perspective, so that they might listen and learn. They are content to live with the allure of mystery. In a way, what hope would there be for relationships if all of the mystery was obliterated?
As Profane says towards the end of the novel: Both protagonists are selfish in their own masculine way. Profane seems to be oblivious to the issue of what women might want. Young Stencil is ambivalent. However, at least Pynchon is posing a question, which I hope he did not view as ridiculous.
Ultimately, while it's arguable that "V" is a pro-feminist novel, I think Pynchon's view was that, as at the time of writing in , there was no solution to the relationship question in view.
There was, quite simply, more to be done. Perhaps the underlying truth is that, unless and until man understands the place of woman in the world, he will never understand his place next to woman. Some perspective and hope might come from McClintic Sphere, the jazz musician in the novel. His counsel, almost zen or beat, is to "keep cool, but care.
But try to do it with love, not just lust and desire. Of course, the Women's Liberation Movement was only then starting to gather force.
However, for all the good it has achieved since then, I think there still remains much to be done. Maybe at the level of couples it can be done, if we keep cool, but care. One day the doctor removed her hump And returned it to her in a bottle. He thought it was such a great success, He gave her another hump for free.
Although she's nowhere Near his age or size, He dreamed that he might Find himself one night At the conjunction Of her inner thighs. Voila, Vera Meroving! A window swung open On this fantastic day To reveal a striking woman In her forties, and otherwise, Barely clad, in a negligee, The hues of which were Peacock greens and blues, The fabric transparent, But not especially obscene.
One Kurt Mondaugen, A crouching tiger, hid behind Wrought iron curlicues, Astonished by his desire To see and not be seen. If he waited long enough, A movement of the sun, This woman or the breeze, It might reveal to him, A voyeur, yes, it might reward His impatient gaze, his stare, With a glimpse of nipple, Her navel or some pubic hair.
I, my love, yours truly, Want to give you Something that Is truly yours. Do you think me so shallow That I would only Love your body? Well, what is the soul? It is the idea of the body, The abstraction behind The reality, the perfect Esther Behind the imperfect one Here in bone and tissue. Just an hour of time In my plastic surgery. I could bring your soul Outside, to the surface.
I could make you Perfect, radiant, Unutterably Beautiful and Platonically ideal. Then I could love you Unconditionally, Truly, madly, deeply, dearly. View all 56 comments. So I opted to tango once more with Thomas. After odd pages of this novel, the niggles new and old returned—the introduction of innumerable madcap characters and their endless zing-flinging dialogue in the same voice; the overa So I opted to tango once more with Thomas. View all 19 comments.
I propose that the titular "V. What, really, is more personal than a first novel? It's that all-or-nothing, balls-to-the-wall debut effort that can either send a fledgling writer plummeting to dream-shattering depths with an effort that falls flat for any number of reasons or it can be the inaugural celebration all starry-eyed young scribes dare to hope for, that which heralds a staggering new talent to a canon populated by the many great wordsl I propose that the titular "V.
It's that all-or-nothing, balls-to-the-wall debut effort that can either send a fledgling writer plummeting to dream-shattering depths with an effort that falls flat for any number of reasons or it can be the inaugural celebration all starry-eyed young scribes dare to hope for, that which heralds a staggering new talent to a canon populated by the many great wordslingers who've scribbled their way to well-deserved immortality. For argument's sake, we'll work under the assumption that those flimsy flavor-of-the-month bestsellers that are so in vogue for their seemingly eternal 15 minutes will, in time, be forgotten and written off as yet another regrettable mistake born of groupthink's lapse in judgment while these truly remarkable feats of literature persist through the ages.
If one is to write what one knows, how daunting must it be to know so much about such a wide range of complicated topics -- minute historical details of a time one either never experienced or was simply too young to fully digest, regardless of youthful precociousness; engineering equations requiring mathematical acrobatics and a more than adequate grasp on physics; an insider's take on the naval experience; an innate understanding of how to perfectly mix high-minded concepts and lowbrow humor with a dash of poetic lyric -- and attempt to whittle it all down into a tome that won't crush potential readers under the weight of both the volume itself and the awe-inspiring ideas roiling within?
The little we do know about literature's most elusive enigma points to pieces of Pynchon being flung along the narrative's parade route like confetti, adding flashes of biographical color to his intricately structured and beautifully written first novel that pits the animate against the inanimate and the internal self against the external veneer and has the best-ever bonus of an Ayn Rand stand-in reduced to baby-talk in the presence of a pwecious widdle kittums-cat?
Because Pynchon has be one conflicted dude.
To be a notoriously private man juggling such derision for the spotlight with the compulsion to write for unseen but rabid fans, to churn out maddeningly, densely obscure works that are nevertheless guaranteed to meet both critical and commercial success and increase sales of Excedrin in the following months , to posses such finely tuned right and left brains that he can be considered nothing less than an engineer-poet in his own right, to walk such a fine line between historical fictions and fictional histories -- is it any wonder that a man so in touch with dueling perspectives would build his first novel on the foundation of This v.
View all 24 comments. He'll go live in a cathouse, he'll jazz it all over town. People like anything: Did he remember the baby alligators? Last year, or maybe the year before, kids all over Nueva York bought these little alligators for pets.
Macy's was selling them for fifty cents, every child, it seemed, had to have one. But soon the children grew bored with them. Some set them loose in the streets, but most flushed them down the toilets. And these had grown and reproduced, had fed off rats and sewage, so that now they moved big, blind, albino, all over the sewer system. Down there, God knew how many there were. Some had turned cannibal because in their neighborhood the rats had all been eaten, or had fled in terror.
Liebchen, come Be my Hottentot bondsman tonight, The sjambok's kiss Is unending delight. Love, my little slave, Is color-blind; For white and black Are only states of mind. As we move further into decadence this becomes more difficult.
And this omnipotent cocotte is entropy. And entropy rules equally the doom of a soap bubble and the fate of a human being, therefore any human life is nothing but a soap bubble.
View all 3 comments. Events seem to ordered in "A phrase it often happened when he was exhausted kept cycling round and round, preconsciously, just under the threshold of lip and tongue movement: Events seem to ordered into an ominous logic. He found paper and pencil and began to write the sentence in varying hands and type faces. Because his novels cover such a broad realm of subjects, while proposing a very unique, and humorous philosophy of history, the connections and transitions of V.
Overall, this passage seems to function as an accurate metaphor for what it feels like to read V.. With his eagerly anticipated seventh novel coming out in August of this year, V. Benny Profane is the archetypal Pynchonian schlemihl; an endearing protagonist, merely trying to get by as the rest of the world struggles obsessively with finding existential meaning in a universe full of closed systems. Tyrone Slothrop of Gravity's Rainbow would later act as a more carefully constructed version of this character.
While it's true that not all of Pynchon's protagonists are slackers simply looking for a good time, they still function as tour guides who offer a more or less objective view of the events taking place.
Even Herbert Stencil who exists as sort of an opposite of Profane, still shares a set of common characteristics, namely, humility or humanity. Call it what you will. We follow Profane after just getting out of the navy, living in New York. He falls in with a crowd of bohemians and drifters referred to as the Whole Sick Crew. This group resembles the social crowd in the Recognitions as well as characters belonging to any standard party scene in a beat novel albeit far more tolerable, and acting as intentional parodies.
Profane loafs around, finds a job hunting alligators in the sewers of New York. After shooting Stencil in the ass on one of his jobs more characters enter the picture, and we are introduced to Stencil's obsessive quest to find the elusive V. From there the narrative drifts back and forth between historical episodes set during the tail end of the 19th century, and the first half of the 20th. Pynchon's sympathies have always been directed at the marginalized, poor, oppressed, idealistic, liberal, etc.
Even when he sketches portraits of his capitalist, fascist, hateful villains, he still manages to show their early development from wide-eyed, idealistic dreamer to avaricious monster, while avoiding a sort of idealistic bias because he presents the reader with the inherent weakness and hypocrisy of his liberal heroes just as well. Gaddis did the same thing with Wyatt Gwyon and Edward Bast, albeit both met more morbid, Faustian ends.
Several episodes in the book, as ambiguous as they are, sort of portray "her" as an unattainable object of desire. Naturally, Shoenmaker the man who performs this operation, later to become her insensitive lover is the first sort of villain to appear. Robots modeled after humans appear later on.
Profane has a particularly profound and hilarious conversation with one of them. Pynchon utilizes this theme as a way of revealing how human beings desire this sort of mechanical, empty ontology, as a way of escaping their own horrific human condition. Once again, this is why Profane's character is so very important. He exemplifies the human spirit. In his lackadaisical approach to life, he achieves what is of the utmost importance to Pynchon.
The ability to merely exist, and deal, regardless of whatever sort of astronomical terror will abound. Another reason why his own unique brand of historical fiction functions so well. What's more horrifying than the first half of the twentieth century? View all 10 comments. Thomas Pynchon Reads like The Adventures of Tintin on hallucinogens. Full of great comic scenes mixed with political espionage and paranoia amidst philosophical comments on the nature of politics, religion, death, time, sexuality and war.
It's a haunting a Thomas Pynchon It's a haunting and frequently hilarious postmodern satire. The quest itself is a long journey, hence the time and globe spanning nature of the story. The book itself is like a series of interconnecting short stories that sweeps through the majestic settings of New York, Paris, Malta, Egypt, Africa and Alexandria. The nature of V seems nurturing, motherly and caring in times of stress and suffering. V is eventually seen, felt and experienced for those who are willing to take the necessary steps.
Too many times are we fed little slices of fear from the characters who contemplate the nature of dying, growing old, separation from mans ignorance. These men in search of V are, in some way, in search of an ego death, to cure their fears in the face of God, a maternal presence of spirit, a being of upmost enlightenment.
Obviously, there is so much more packed into this near page novel, but that's what I got out of it first time around. Political theory is examined extensively through different countries and characters. Sexuality and youth seems prevalent within The Whole Sick Crew. There are some comments on the Christian Church and Christianity in general. Freudian psychology, science and mathematics pop up and colonialism is touched on as well.
Or you could be a schlemihl and take Benny Profane's approach: View all 6 comments. Reading Thomas Pynchon's first novel is like plunging head first into a room with very little light. As the novel progresses, Pynchon regulates that light sometimes letting the reader see very clearly, narratively speaking, and other times enveloping the reader into near darkness.
Though not exact opposites, their destinies do not int Reading Thomas Pynchon's first novel is like plunging head first into a room with very little light. Though not exact opposites, their destinies do not intersect until the last part of the book. Profane's story is the more traditional narrative of the two as he passively wanders into alligator hunting, bar brawls, and an enigmatic security job. Profane with his friends known as "The Whole Sick Crew" could be Pynchon's alter ego and could be also an amalgamation of Naval and literary figures.
The breadth of Pynchon's encyclopedic knowledge comes through with the emergence of Stencil as he wanders through time and multiple identities taking up his father's mission to find V. V wanders time and space presumably though- its never clear showing up in 19th century British Egypt, as a rat in a New York City sewer, and in a very difficult chapter as a "bad preist" mangled by children in the ruins of World War II.
Pynchon's strokes are most broad in sub-stories regarding a German colony in South Africa and later in another chapter surrounding an impaled ballerina that entrances V. The connections are not often clear but the indictments of colonialism and war ring true. V is a challenging must-read postwar American whirlwind that remains consistent in its aggressively cubist tone. View 2 comments. Schlemiels, adventurers, foreign agents. What to say of Pynchon's half-century spanning epic?
Like Gravity's Rainbow , Pynchon's first novel published, I think, at an astonishing age 26 is concerned with questions of life and death, here both at the internal, personal scale of our relations to people, things, and the outer world, and on a broad international scale of war, colonialism, and political intrigue. Linking the two, Herbert Stencil, adventurer and obsessed historian, tracking the intertwined history of his British foreign off What to say of Pynchon's half-century spanning epic?
Linking the two, Herbert Stencil, adventurer and obsessed historian, tracking the intertwined history of his British foreign office agent father and the enigmatic V. Stencil himself, curiously, seems to be one of only a few characters in the teeming cast not occupying an obvious spot on an animate to inanimate continuum, as his obsessions simultaneously encompass the human and inhuman worlds people, but lost to the unliving past. His off-the-scale foil is ultimate sad-sack ex-seamen Benny Profane, whose role as uber-schlemiel seemingly places him at both the far left position of animacy the born bungler's natural enemy, we are told, being the inanimate objects that conspire to trip them up like so many banana peels which, fortunately, appear nowhere in the novel -- it would just be too much and the deepest inanimacy of sloth and of one who, giving in to his perceived self-created?
Potential Profane paramour Rachel Owlglass, on the other hand, may sit at the fulcrum and be as a result the novel's healthiest character overall.
What can be said? Lots apparently, and yet much, much more than I can possibly describe here.
What matters most is that the novel is beautiful and tragic, a marvel of both clockwork convergent plotting and the ultimate nonconvergent spinout of human passions. And one which manages to be considerably more gripping and less opaque than some of the subsequent Pynchon I've read. I've seen the book described elsewhere as "cubist". It is an accurate term, evoking both the book's violent modernism and chorus of impossible angles. Angles which, we find, are still capable of describing a human portrait.
Ignore talk below of my previously setting this aside - I am giving it try 2 and am enjoying it much more - perhaps it's the timing - it begins on Christmas Eve and the first chapters unfold during the week between Christmas and the new year View all 34 comments. Feb 21, Nathan "N. The prior, V. I unlocked a bunch of great stuff with that key. Fantastic stuff. Stuff I dug. Stuff I got lost in. Against the Day. The newest thing. And probably not helpful for reading other Pynchon either.
But that might just be my thing about disavowing any pretense about drugs of various sorts making entertainment products better. Drugs are entertaining enough on their own without the supplement of other artistic genres.
But speaking of drugs of various sorts, what one should point out is that the distance between and is a length of 46 years. And GR is being sweated with a great deal of anticipation by me. But this V. I liked lots of stuff it in though. To be sure. I really liked the way sentences followed themselves in Against the Day. I had that experience with V. And I know that with someone like a Pynchon that unity is designed to be frustrated, but dammit! So the episodic stuff of course is de rigour these days and I dig it; making a novel out of a collection of short stories.
Which is emphatically not what V. This is just not quite one of them. Some will love it. View all 12 comments. The search for the identity of V is the primary question in this masterwork from Pynchon.
It is funny and tragic and crazy and totally Pynchon. I mean, I loved the pleasure of reading it. But months later, I remember just the story of the genocide in Africa and some other snapshots but overall the image remains vague.
Perhaps I read too much Pynchon i The search for the identity of V is the primary question in this masterwork from Pynchon. Perhaps I read too much Pynchon in too short a time? I definitely will need to reread this one again. Thomas Pynchon has written some of the best pieces of English fiction that I've ever read. The world he tries to project in V. The writing feels upolished, unrefined, not really the Pynchon I've grown used to.
Two of his short stories won prizes in and In J, Gravity's Rain- bow received the National Book Award and was denied the Pulitzer despite the unanimous recommendation of the judges.
In two decades, 16 books, a journal, and several hundred articles have been devoted to Pynchon's work. Yet he has remained inaccessible; his reluctance about publicity dates from the early s. His whereabouts arc a secret known to few. All this has fostered a not altogether healthy curiosity but has also had salutary results. Pynchon is coextensive with his texts, no one interpretation of which can be privileged by an appeal to interviews or self-explanatory essays.
One exception is the "Preface" to a collection of his short stories, Slow Learner , in which Pynchon sardonically works to undercut his "established" image as a scientifically knowledgeable artist celebrated by academic critics.
Themes and metaphors borrowOCI from science, such as entropy, provide a core for many of Pynchon's stories, which are explored less schematically in his novels.
The first of these, V. Stencil, whose quest is to stalk the mysterious "V", insists on imposing a constraining order on the facts he uncovers or constructs, seeking to diminish his own anxiety about meaninglessness.
Everything he encounters is a malleable sign to be interpreted and fitted into his own schema. In contrast, Profane's life has more things in it than signs and more signs than significance; he is a reluctant interpreter. Oedipa Maas, the heroine of The Crying of Lot 49 , is also on a quest, one that obliges her to become an interpreter of the human landscape of Cal- ifornia, in which she travels, and of European art. Her quest is patterned on the detective story, but in this case the rewards of interpreting clues are limited.
She discovers the promise nf ever-elusive. Gravity's Rainbow , arguably the most important American fiction since Faulkner's Go Down, Moses , consists of a series of intersecting quests. The figure most approximating a protagonist. Tyrone Slothrop, seeks a secret that seemingly links the sites of his erectiuns and sexual heroics to Y-2 rockets that appear subsequently to burst upon those sites.
They encounter, or are, the "passed over": Although Gravity's Rainbow is based on scrupulous research, like its great prede- cessor Ulysses it subverts the aspiration to control the farrago of facts it amasses; only a paranoid could assemble them into a unified system.
In- deed, no single interpretive synthesis can possibly account for the cornu- copia of facts, language-games, and scenes of joy and suffering. As in the previous novels, so also in Gravity's Rainbow the reader is seduced into interminable interpretation, which offers frequent small epiphanies but no apocalyptic revelation, except perhaps that of victimage and death as our common lot.
Selected Bibliography Primary Sources V. Lippincott, The Crying of Lot Ciravity's Rainholl'. New York: Viking Press.
Sloll' Learner. Secondary Sources Clerc. Approaches to Gravity's Rainbow. Ohio State Uni- versity Press. Ideas of Order in the Novels of Thomas Pynchon. Ohio State University Press, A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. Prentice-Hall, Pearce, Richard.