His Dark Materials: The Golden Compass • Book I. The Subtle Knife • Book II. The Amber Spyglass • Book III. Lyra's Oxford. The Broken Bridge. Count Karlstein. His Dark Materials has 22 entries in the series. Philip Pullman Author (). cover image of The Science of Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials. His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman PDF, PDF The Golden Compass, The Amber Spyglass PDF Download, His Dark Materials Trilogy PDF.
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A NEW HBO SERIES, HIS DARK MATERIALS, BASED ON PULLMAN'S pdf. Sign me up to get more news about Children's books. Please make a selection Each of the novels in Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy offers an exciting . Book 1: His Dark Materials: The Golden Compass File Size: Kb | File Format: PDF The second book in the "Dark Materials" trilogy. PDF | The purpose of this paper is to analyze five themes of the trilogy His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman in the light of their similarity to.
Discuss how Lyra deals with these betrayals. Good vs. Evil —The trilogy challenges our assumptions about good and evil: What are other examples of unexpected forms of good and evil in the trilogy? At the end of The Amber Spyglass , what do Will and Lyra learn about good and evil, about actions versus labels?
How will this affect the way they will live the rest of their lives? At what point does she almost lose her courage? How does Will show courage in The Subtle Knife? Engage the class in a discussion about whether having possession of the alethiometer and The Subtle Knife either gives Lyra and Will courage or threatens it. How does it take courage to leave one another and return to their own worlds at the end of the trilogy? Why does he evoke fear in her? How can she be afraid and admire him at the same time?
Discuss how fear is related to courage. Why does this enable Lyra to trust him? Which characters do Serafina Pekkala and Lee Scoresby decide to trust? Is their trust warranted? Who are the characters that Lyra once trusted, but in the end finds that she cannot? Please be kind to Lyra for as long as she lives. I love her more than anyone has ever been loved.
How does their love affect the fate of the living—and the dead? Ask students to identify the qualities of a hero. Have students select a hero from one of the novels and write a poem about that hero. Encourage students to share their poems in class.
It is quite common for writers of fantasy to create their own vocabularies. Vocabulary, including the names of characters, is often symbolic of the underlying themes and messages of the story.
What is the purpose of foster care? With help from the armored bear Iorek Byrnison and two tiny Gallivespian spies, they must journey to a gray-lit world where no living soul has ever gone. All the while, Dr. Mary Malone builds a maagnificent amber spyglass. An assassin hunts her down. And Lord Asriel, with troops of shining angels, fights his mighty rebellion, a battle of strange allies—and shocking sacrifices.
As war rages and Dust drains from the sky, the fate of the living—and the dead—finally comes to depend on two children and the simple truth of one simple story. This Yearling paperback edition contains 13 pages of bonus material: It also features chapter-opening artwork by Philip Pullman. Email This BlogThis!
Newer Post Older Post Home. Dhal September 10, at 7: Avery Lilliard April 8, at 3: Charles Anderson April 11, at 2: Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. The uniqueness of their influence lies mostly in two matters. First, they were both prolific and successful writers of fantasy literature, popular during their lifetime and posthumously. Second, not only did they write brilliant texts themselves, but they also produced an essential basis for the development of fantasy today Accordingly, they were both skilled in the art of writing and professionals in the area of theory and criticism.
Their influence was enormous, and still many years later, various writers operates on the premises of their fundamental observations and assumptions. Tolkien, as a well-educated scholar and experienced professor of English literature, had a lot to talk about. Though the essay mostly deals with the specific genre of fairy stories as Tolkien called fantasy back then, it examines crucial basics and elements of fantasy literature that will be discussed in this thesis.
Tolkien was very specific and tried to answer three basic questions: What are fairy-stories? What is their origin? What is the use of them? The first dilemma, as mention already in the previous subchapter, was the confusion of definition. Tolkien made an attempt to clarify the definition of the fairy-tale.
For the most part, the problem was in the common understanding of the word fairy: Thus, the journey to the fantasy world begins when the reader opens the book, enters the new world, and is like a traveller in the unknown territory. It is full of perils, wonders and adventures, but all the time the reader is led by the sub-creator of that world—by the author.
For Tolkien like for his successors, tracing the origins of the fairy-stories and fantasy is also a complex matter. He, however, gave a very plain and logical reason: Stories, and storytelling in particular, are an ancient practice and they are present all over the world and probably in every culture 6, 7.
Thus, Tolkien abandoned the tedious process of searching and he focused on what the stories were for him and his contemporaries. In this matter, he proposed one of the most important ideas in fantasy literature: This means that fairy-stories usually have three faces: Usually, Tolkien argued, fantasy deals with the first two faces. One other important aspect of fairy-stories is vital and needs to be mentioned.
Tolkien devised his own idea of happy-ending in the story. He called it a eucatastrophe, in other words a happy catastrophe. Without it, the story seems to be invalid, lacking some essential part and is incomplete Only in his short essay, Tolkien outlined so many important qualities of fantasy that it is impossible to underestimate them. His profound understanding of this topic came from his professional life—he was an English professor in Oxford for many years—as well as the thriving author of fantasy novels and stories.
Obviously, The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit have been among the most successful fantasy books in the twentieth century. Thus, only in fantasy humans could express certain divine longings and desires more clearly than in other forms of art.
Those expressions, however, were not contrary to logic but rather complimentary: In the mid fifties, however, Tolkien had another ally in both fantasy criticism and fantasy literature creation.
Lewis, like his dear friend Tolkien, was also a fellow professor of English Medieval Literature in Oxford, and a prolific writer. From that point on Lewis became the Christian believer and apologist. Moreover, due to his long-life devotion to fantasy stories, he was both a creative writer and an experienced scholar in the fantasy literature criticism.
Fantasy literature, according to Lewis, has an extremely inexhaustible potential to express the unexpressed desires, stories, and longings that other ways seemed impossible to achieve. And reverence itself did harm … But supposing that by casting all these things into an imaginary world, stripping them of their stained-glass and Sunday school associations, one could make them for the first time appear in their real potency? Could one not thus steal past those watchful dragons? I thought one could.
On the one hand, it is a great adventure story for both children and adults alike, though initially made only for the juvenile audience. In this way in the Narnian stories, for example, Lewis was able to present the Christian myth in a new way, enabling the reader to appreciate the story from a fresh perspective. Their masterpieces Lord of the Rings, Chronicles of Narnia and Space Trilogy have been widely acclaimed as the examples of fantasy at its best and served as handbooks for future writers However, they did not create a new type of literature or genre, rather developed what was already there by expanding and enriching the deep roots of myth and mythmaking.
That caused two implications for the further studies. First, both Tolkien and Lewis were able to notice that mythopoeic fantasy is a modern genre somehow based but distinct from other works of fantasy written by MacDonald, Morris, Williams and others. Second, this genre is characterized by a Secondary World created by the author to ensure a deeper moral sense and a belief in the existence of the supernatural power Thus, Oziewicz uses their ideas and proposes the definition of mythopoeic fantasy that: Authors like Ursula K.
The importance of the new and powerful type of written works have also been recognized by some distinctive critics like Peter Beagle, Jane Langton, Jane Yolen, Virginia Hamilton and others. Oziewicz finishes his discussion on the mythopoeic fantasy by providing list of characteristic elements in the plot, characters, settings, themes and language.
In terms of the plot, fantasy usually involves elements of the life-changing quest, and so called bildungsroman structures. The life of the main character is interrupted by some unexpected event or intrusion in the reality. The task is very often overwhelming and so the protagonist has an assist in the form of some spiritual power or powers that equip him or her to accomplish the challenge No matter how challenging the quest is, there must be a positive resolution.
As mentioned before, Tolkien coined the idea of a eucatastrophe or in other words a happy catastrophe that has been exploited since then in major fantasy novels. Characters in the mythopoeic fantasy can be of any kind: Thus, following the bildungsroman structures they grow towards understanding and convictions and are quite often from the archetypical family configurations: The plot, Oziewicz describes, takes place in the secondary world or worlds.
As mentioned before the concept is not new and was enriched by Tolkien and Lewis. The action may take place only in the alternative reality or the characters go back and forth.
However, the crucial element is for the author to construct and establish the Secondary World in the background of the plot. As other critics agree, it must be plausible, but it cannot be simply defined in the beginning of the story. It often has architectural buildings as well as gods, angels, and other supernatural beings so the creation is more complex than in other literary texts Among many motifs used in the mythopoeic fantasy self- sacrifice, compensatory justice and mythic time are the most frequent and well established.
Additionally, authors of mythopoeic fantasy make their best to convince us that the ancient and mythical codes of justice were better in terms of their fairness and value. They did not leave the vacuum that may be observed between personal vision of justice and the justice served by the legal system at work today The third motif breaks the linear, Newtonian concept of time in favour of the idea that time can be adjusted and changed according to needs.
Such manipulation of time is used by many authors and guarantees the oneness of the character and the reality. Last but not the least quality of mythopoeic fantasy lies in the language it uses. Words in literature are very important but for mythopoeic fantasy they play crucial role in the construction of the Secondary World in the use of spells, names and languages.
It is a longing expressed by various writers and their ideas e. It is obvious that those elements are not the only ones that define mythopoeic fantasy, but they certainly distinguish it from other fantasy texts and literature genres. Yet, the conclusions and observations made in the discussion are impossible to stress without acknowledging the influence of Lewis and Tolkien. Without them it would be difficult to talk about fantasy, lest mythopoeic fantasy whatsoever.
They both were prolific authors and proficient critics in the fields of fantasy literature. Building on their predecessors, they explored the roots and developed the ideas of the emerging genre.
Undoubtedly, most of the current fantasists operate on the premises left by Tolkien and Lewis in various ways. One of them is Philip Pullman, who is now a very successful contemporary fantasist. Although he openly disagrees with that label and audaciously despise Lewis as a writer and critic, Pullman may be seen as his successor in many ways. Lewis, Susan Cooper, Alan Garner and many other fantasists Like Oziewicz, Smith asserts that the story must have a young protagonist that embarks on a life-changing quest.
In the His Dark Materials trilogy, Lyra and her later companion Will are just the two among many examples. Both are from broken families and both struggle with finding their true identity. In the case of Pullman these are alternative worlds, very similar and yet different to each other. In this matter, Pullman goes further than just to use the conventions from his predecessors because in his novel he presents the advantages as well as consequences of travelling through time and to other worlds.
The great mission or journey is another convention highly exploited by Pullman, again in a more unconventional way. Fortunately, throughout their journey main characters have a number of mentors, guides, and assistance that support and inform them.
Not surprisingly, Pullman is very rich in his extensive mystical and existential ideas that he introduces in the texts.
He studied in Oxford, accidentally the same place where both Tolkien and Lewis studied and lectured for years. Therefore, in the trilogy, there is Mary Malone, a scientist who has some sort of liking of Chinese I Ching spirituality that helps her and the protagonists successfully fulfil their mission.
There are also tools and apparatus like the Amber Spyglass, and alethiometer , All those people, creatures, and devices are to ensure that the characters have enough help to accomplish the mission.
On the one hand, they serve as information for the reader on the new world and on the other hand become a comfortable way for Pullman to present his convictions. Final convention of fantasy, as Smiths asserts, is the return to the Primary World by the protagonists, with more knowledge and understanding The bildungsroman story structures are shaken again by Pullman when the primary object of the journey has been achieved by the end of the story.
In conclusion, it is clear that vast majority of contemporary critics still use the assumptions laid out by Tolkien and Lewis. Their influence and contribution to fantasy literature, and mythopoeic fantasy in particular, is, by no means, invaluable.
Contemporary writers work on premises of their assumptions and critics like Waggoner, Egoff, Mathews, Hunt and Oziewicz draw conclusions based on Tolkien and Lewis observations.
Having said that, it is true that Philip Pullman falls into the category of writers who follow their style. The first section will describe the most popular of his books His Dark Materials.
It will start with an overview of the plot, characters, settings and themes. Particularly important is his approach towards faith, God and spirituality. Section two, of this chapter will demonstrate the way Pullman judges his own work in accordance with his great detest of another fantasy writer—C. Pullman openly comments and despises Narnian series and, as he claims, he created His Dark Materials as a counterpart.
Philip Pullman: It helps to see things clearer and gain a little more perspective on his or her creation. A quick overview of the life of Philip Pullman will serve as a good introduction to His Dark Materials. As one may read the biographical note on his website, Philip Pullman was born in Norwich in His childhood was, by no means, ordinary because he travelled a lot with his family to England, Zimbabwe, and Australia.
In that time, he first fell in love with comics and stories like Superman and Batman. Uncertain of the truth about the tragedy, the young boy came up with his own explanation—his father was a hero and died in a heroic battle. Many years later Pullman found out the truth that his father died during a test flight. When Pullman was around 12 years, he and his mother moved back to Wales. At school, he was not a very remarkable student, and generally, he disliked it.
However, there was one teacher, Miss Enid Jones who he instantly liked. She inspired him and others to read poetry aloud. She was also the one who encouraged Pullman to read his own poems to the class. Even now, many years later, they stay in touch, and Pullman sends her a copy of his book when it is finished. For Pullman, another member of his family played an important part.
As he says, his grandfather could come up with a story about anything. Even after Pullman grew out of religious convictions, he still kept on going to church. He admired his grandfather enormously and did not want to hurt him The Wand in the Word Pullman graduated from Exeter University in Oxford where he studied English literature. Interestingly, it was the same university where Lewis and Tolkien both studied and taught.
He had a chance to meet Professor Tolkien in person over a short dinner that he was invited to with few other friends. Though Tolkien had already well established reputation, Pullman does not recall their meeting as an exciting event. As everyone at that time, he also read the most popular book Lord of the Rings.
He admits that he read the book only once because later he could not find anything more interesting in it The Wand in the Word For the next 12 years, he taught in various middle schools around the city. Afterward, he became a part-time senior lecturer in English at Westminster College, Oxford. Yet, his most cherished memories are from teaching the 12 year-olds in middle schools. He loved that job, though, as he recalls, he initially took it because there was a lot of free time in the summer.
In that time, there was no curriculum to be followed. Thus, Pullman had his own approach to teaching literature. That was the best part of teaching, doing what he was the best at. But if you tell it face to face, you improvise a bit, you play around All of the teaching experience in three different schools gave him a great deal of inspiration for further writing.
He could observe and draw interesting conclusions about the social behaviours of his students. Most probably, somewhere in one of the classes Pullman must have found an inspiration for the character like Lyra, the main protagonist of His Dark Materials or for Will, her friend and devout companion.
His writing career came forth quite slowly. He began by writing short stories in his school days encouraged by Miss Enid Jones. Later on, when he was a teacher he was writing and helping to stage short plays for children. He tried his luck in adult fiction circle as well, with Galatea in , yet without much success. One proof of his popularity is that the series has been sold in million copies so far and translated into several languages as well as played on theatrical stages and incorporated onto the silver screen as Golden Compass directed by Chris Weitz and released in by New Line Cinema; staring Daniel Craig and Nicole Kidman.
Another evidence of his giftedness in writing is the fact that over the years books have gathered several awards. In taken by surprise, Pullman was awarded the prestigious Astrid Lindgren Award together with the Japanese illustrator Ryoji Arai.
Additionally, he was shortlisted for other awards and appreciated by British Book Awards for: If both readers and critics alike appreciate the series so much, it must be a proof of its extraordinary value. As mentioned in the previous chapter, each book, especially fantasy literature, can be read on two levels.
First, it is reading the book as it is, with its interesting plot, characters and settings. This level comes more easily to children, and thus they usually enjoy the story wholeheartedly. Second level is more common for the adult readership. It is going beyond the obvious and looking on what is not visible on the surface at the first glance. Thus, the books reveal more complicated themes and ideas, and in the case of Pullman a complex ideology and belief system.
Both will be presented and discussed below. They overhear a conversation about a conspiracy plan to kill her uncle, Lord Asriel, and about a strange matter called Dust.
Apparently, it is a very important excursion because he is given financial support from the officials. Her fun is soon to be disturbed when Roger is kidnapped by a group called the Gobblers. It is said that they kidnap children, take them to the North, and perform some sort of experiments.
As a devoted friend, Lyra is determined to find and rescue her companion. For some time, however, she is overtaken by a young lady Mrs. Coulter, who takes her to London and is supposed to be her new caretaker and teacher.
Just before leaving, Lyra meets the Master of Jordan College, who gives her an unusual apparatus, the alethiometer. The device is unique, only few chosen people can learn how to use it to understand past, present and future. Spending time with Mrs. Coulter soon proves to be more harmful than enjoyable because she turns out to be a very dangerous woman.
Lyra escapes and finds herself in the Gypsies clan. Over there she learns about her true identity— she is a illegitimate child of Lord Asriel and Mrs. On her way, the rescue party stops by at Dr. Soon, the group is accompanied by a hired Texan aeronaut Lee Scoresby and an armored bear Iorek Byrnison. While they make their way to Lapland, Mrs. Coulter meets with General Oblation Board, or G.
Unfortunately, the Tartars, a group of soldiers hired by the church, attack the camp, take Lyra and Roger captive, and bring them to the laboratory. Over there Lyra hears all the truth about the experiments and evil practices of the G. Coulter who rescues her just in time. Over there she tricks the untruthful ruler, Ioful Raknison to fight with Iorek. The battle is won and Iorek is back on his throne as the real king of the Polar Bears.
Finally, Lyra accompanied by her friend Roger, reaches the fortress where Lord Asriel is said to be a prisoner. Lyra and her father have a long talk about everything that has happened so far. He explains to her all the details about the origin of Dust—the original sin that came into being when Adam and Eve ate the forbidden fruit.
Devastated and filled with hatred towards Lord Asriel and Mrs. Coulter she decides to follow him into another world and find the Dust that he wants to destroy. The story continues in the second volume of the trilogy The Subtle Knife and begins in the world as in present times.
When trying to hide after killing one of the men that have been chasing him, Will finds an anomaly in the air. He soon discovers that it is a window to another world, and he decides to examine it. In one of the houses, he meets Lyra.
Both are equally astonished: The children soon discover that the city is inhabited by children, while adults are essentially numb, lifeless phantoms. Some sort of ghost creatures called the Specters hunt for adults and feed on their souls. In the meantime, Mrs. Serafina Pekkala appears just in time and kills the witch to prevent her from revealing all the information. Then, she joins other witches to prepare for fight with Lord Asriel and protect Lyra while Lee Scoresby sets his course to the North to find mysterious man called Stanislaus Grumman.
Soon, she must flee when she reveals that she knows Will who is being searched by the officials. Sir Charles Lantrom, a man she has met before in her own world helps her escape but he steals the alethiometer.
Devastated, she goes back to Will and they both visit the man. It is believed that, this knife is a device that can cut through universes and enables travelling. The children go back, and Will fights over to win the Subtle Knife from the untruthful owner holding captive the proper knife bearer. After the wrestle, during which Will loses two of his fingers, he is taught how to open and close the windows cut by the knife.
First, the children decide to use the new device to get back for the stolen alethiometer, which they barely manage to do. Lee promises to help John to find the knife bearer to share with him an important message. She decides to follow the new instructions. The clan of witches decides to travel to the world where Lord Asriel is preparing himself for the ultimate confrontation.
They are attacked by the church forces that try to kill them. In the heroic but deadly attempt, Lee decides to stay and hold the forces while John Parry manages to escape.
It seems that Lyra will become another Eve and she will cause another fall from grace—like in the original story in the Garden of Eden—she will cause people to sin. Coulter decides that she must find the child and kill her.
Although Lyra is her daughter, the destiny of the world is more important to her. After Mrs. Coulter has the necessary information, she kills the witch and Charles Lantrom, her lover. Back in the camp, while Lyra is asleep, Will goes for a lonely walk. He meets his father and they reunite. John explains to his son that his destiny is connected with the knife, the only device that can kill God, and that he needs to meet with Lord Asriel to give him the tool.
Father and son reunion does not take long because John is soon killed by a witch he used to love. After that, the witch also kills herself. Devastated, Will returns to the camp to discover that it has been attacked by the Specters under command of Mrs. The witches are killed, Lyra is gone, and the only thing left is her knapsack with the alethiometer.
Two angels await Will and urge him to travel with them to meet Lord Asriel. Will is torn inside, on the one hand, he knows he needs to go, but on the other hand, he feels he should find and rescue Lyra. The last part of the trilogy, The Amber Spyglass, starts when Mrs. Coulter holds Lyra captive in a cave in the mountains by feeding her some poison so the girl is asleep. Back in the camp Will decides to find Lyra in her world.
He tells Will that all the angels are made of Dust, and that God is not the creator of the universe but one of the angels. He gained power and started to rule based developing his dominion on lies, deceit, and force. A female being recognized the lie and thus the rebellion against God started ever since. After being attracted by other angels, he manages to reach the fortress, tells Lord Asriel about the place where Lyra is kept and about the plans of the Metatron.
He is one of the rebel angels who took over the power after God became distant and aged and now lives in a crystal chamber called Clouded Mountain. Metatron and Baruch were brothers. After delivering the news, Baruch dies. In the meantime, the Consistorial Court, a branch of the Church, plans to kill Lyra by sending soldiers to the cave and, just in case, a spy called Father Gomez to follow Mary Malone who may lead him to the girl.
They decide to use knife and set Lyra free. During the struggle in the cave, Will drops the knife and damages it. The Church army attacks the cave; during the battle Mrs. After the escape, the children decide to meet Iorek who can fix the knife. Mary Malone finds another world, where strange looking creatures live. The mulefa communicate by their trunks and they travel with use their claws attached to wheels made of seedpods. Soon, Mary learns how to communicate with them, especially one creature called Atal.
He explains to her that Mulefa have existed for about years. According to their version of creation story, in the beginning, a snake told a female zalif—a word for single mulefa—to put her claw through the seedpod.
After she obeyed, her male companion follower her example, and they both saw sraf, or Dust, and became conscious people. It has been that way ever since when the seedpod trees produce oil for the seedpod wheels of the mulefa.
Unfortunately, about years ago, the trees got weaker and started producing less oil. Without oil, the mulefa cannot produce more sraf, and without it they will go back to being numb creatures. To help her new friends, Mary builds a mirror and later a spyglass so she can see Dust and examine the problem. For children it is like tearing apart their own soul inside. The land of the dead is filled with people, who are hunted by harpies who remind them of all their bad deeds.
Lyra decides to free all of the spirits who are constantly tortured. In an exchange for leading the group to the way out so that they all can escape Lyra promises to tell true stories to harpies from her life.
Coulter is taken to Lord Asriel fortress, she escapes to the Consistorial Court using a machine called the Intention Craft. Coulter has, and cut Mrs. Just in time Lord Asriel arrives and safes her, so Father MacPhail has to sacrifice himself to start the bomb. Back in the world of the dead, Will cuts a window and the spirits can flee.
When they hit the air, they dissolve. Metatron and his angels lead an army to fight against the newly build Republic of Heaven headed by Lord Asriel and his allies. Coulter again escapes and meets with Metatron. Though he is a supernatural being, she is able to seduce him. She leads him to the edge of the abyss.