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Mba hr notes pdf

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Concept based notes. Human Resource Management. MBA (II SEM). Richa Khunteta. Surbhi Mathur. Dept of MBA. Biyani Institute of Science & Management, . human resource management semester notes week what is hrm? the focus of hrm is on managing people within the employer-employee relationship. it involves. Download MBA Human Resource Management complete notes pdf. Here We Provide the Links to Download MBA 2nd sem HRM Study.

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. Class.: I MBA being prepared by me and it meets the Computer Applications In Human Resource Management. GLOBAL HR PRACTICES. UNIT – I. CHAPTER – I. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS & GLOBALISATION. INTRODUCTION. Globalisation for better or worse has. MBA – II Semester. Paper Code: MBAC PAPER – VIII. Human Resources Management. Objectives ӹ To understand and appreciate the.

Since every organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to higher levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organizational objectives. This is true, regardless of the type of the organization — government, business, education, health, recreational, or social action. HRM is management function that helps managers to recruit, select, train and develop members for an organization. Organizations mean people. It is the people who staff and manage organizations.

Showcase degrees of difficulties 9. Demographic features Further the job specifications can be divided into three broad categories Essential Attributes Desirable Attributes Contra-Indicators — indicators hampering the success of job Job specifications seeks to indicate what kind of persons may be expected to most closely approximate the role requirements and thus it is basically concerned with matters of selection.

These specifications are needed to do job satisfactorily.

Notes mba pdf hr

Personal characteristics 4. Contents of Job Specifications 1. Responsibilities 5. Physical Characteristics 2. Psychological characteristics 3. Different factors are selected for different jobs with accompanying differences in degrees and points.

Who should evaluate job? Ignoring this basic principle results in inequitable compensation. Jobs are ranked on the basis of its title or contents. This establishes Job Hierarchies. A perception of inequity is a sure way of de-motivating an employee.

Methods of evaluation to be used 2. Each of these factors are then ranked with other jobs. Relative worth is determined mainly on the basis of job description and job specification only.

Human Resource Management Notes Mba

Jobs are evaluated on the basis of content. It is based on the job as a whole and the differentiation is made The worth of the job is then taken by adding together all the point values. Establishing wage and salary differentials. Job is not broken down into factors etc. Process of Job Evaluation: How much time involved? Job evaluation is a process of analyzing and assessing the various jobs systematically to ascertain their relative worth in an organization.

Employee Classification 4. The important factors are selected which can be assumed to be common to all jobs. Wage Survey 3. What are the criteria for evaluation? Clearly remuneration must be based on the relative worth of each job.

Remuneration also involves fringe benefits. Jobs are ranked not jobholders Scope of Job Evaluation The job evaluation is done for the purpose of wage and salary differentials. What training do the evaluators need? Identify jobs to be evaluated Benchmark jobs or all jobs b. Job Evaluation helps to determine wages and salary grades for all jobs. Employees need to be compensated depending on the grades of jobs which they occupy.

Defining objectives of job evaluation a. In this method it is important to form a grade description to cover discernible differences in skills. Pitfalls of Job Evaluation: Workers become more competent in several jobs. On the positive side. Work simplification is used when jobs are not specialized. Further training costs also rise and it can To be more specific. Here jobs remain unchanged. Specification of Individual Tasks 2.

When incumbents become bore of routine jobs. Specification of Methods of Tasks Performance 3. On the negative side.

Job is simplified or specialized. Besides jobs may not improve the relationships between task. Definit io n 1: The job is broken down into small parts and each part is assigned to an individual. Periodic job changes can improve interdepartmental cooperation. Further the worker becomes more valuable to the organization.

As per the two-factor motivation theory. Additional features in job meet certain psychological needs of jobholders due to skill variety.

In other words. Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed. Empowerment is a by-product of job enrichment.

Full Ability Utilization 4. J ob Enla r gem ent: It means expanding the number of tasks. Job enlargement is said to contribute to employee motivation but the claim is not validated in practice. It is with same skills taking additional responsibilities like extending working hours etc. Benefits of Job Enlargement: Benefit s o f J ob enr ic hm ent 1. There is only horizontal expansion. For this employees also need to be trained to adjust to the new system.

Redesigning existing work system required 3. Job enlargement may involve breaking up of the existing work system and redesigning a new work system. High Training Costs 2. Unions demand pay—hike 6. It also adds to employee self-esteem and self-control. It means passing on more authority and responsibility. Task Variety 2.

It benefits employee and organization in terms of increased motivation. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more self-evaluation. Job enrichment itself might not be a great motivator since it is job-intrinsic factor.

Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification. Productivity may not increase necessarily 4. It should be Jobs may still remain boring and routine J ob Enr ic hm ent: An enriched job will have more responsibility. Job enrichment stimulates improvements in other areas of organization. Worker Paced Control 5. Meaningful Work Modules 3. Lazy employees may not be able to take additional responsibilities and power.

Workload increases 5. Unions resistance. However due to bureaucracy high performance work design does not work. Job enrichment assumes that workers want more responsibilities and those workers who are motivated by less responsibility. Empowerment results in self-directed work teams. Operational flexibility is important and there is the need for employees to gain and apply new skills quickly with minimum supervision. It starts from the principle of autonomous groups working and developing an approach.

Change is difficult to implement and is always resisted as job enrichment brings in a changes the responsibility. Improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set leads to high performance work design.

A self —directed team is an intact group of employees responsible for whole work segment.

Notes pdf hr mba

Workers participation may affect the enrichment process itself. So we can say that Designing Jobs is actually creating Motivated Jobs. Simplified jobs are easy to perform hence employees find it easy to do. It also improves workers self image. Considering above examples. Job enrichment involves improving task efficiency and human satisfaction. Hence job rotation helps the job become more motivating.

All these factors lead to increased level of motivation and hence make the jobs more motivated. Job enlargement involves expanding number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more selfevaluation. Job design affects employee productivity.

Work simplification simplifies the job by breaking down the job into small parts.

Notes pdf hr mba

Job enrichment provides greater scope for personal achievement and recognition. Consequently it provides a high level of motivation to employees because jobs itself become motivators. Job design is a conscious effort to organize tasks. Training requirements are reduced and it benefits the organizations in terms of cost.

Periodic job change can improve inter-departmental cooperation. It improves the intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities are needed to perform a job. Job rotation means movement of employees of job to job across the organization. How a job design creates a motivating job can be seen with the help of certain components of job design. Workers become more competent in several jobs rather than only one. An enriched job gives vertical enrichment in the form of more responsibility and autonomy and a horizontal enrichment in the form of variety of tasks and more growth opportunities.

In short job satisfaction is a general attitude. Components of Job Satisfaction Personal factors: Fringe benefits. Advancement opportunities and Working conditions. The attitudes related to job may be wages. Occupational status. Size of plant Management controlled factors: Job inherent factors: Type of work.

Education and Personality. Measuring and quantifying activities "A measurement technique for the quantitative analysis of non-repetitive or irregularly occurring activity. When we are not adding value to the product. Many studies make use of off-shift technicians or operators to take the observations.

When enough samples are taken. Work sampling operates by an observer taking a series of random observations on a particular "thing" of interest machine. Also assume that random observations were made of the operator and during 24 of these he or she was observed to be idle. Advantages of Work Sampling It is relatively inexpensive to use and extremely helpful in providing a deeper understanding of all types of operations.

When properly used. How are our inter-dependent systems performing? Where should we focus our continuous improvement activities? We might then conclude. A brief example might be that 77 of observations showed a machine to be running. The ratio of the number of observations of a given state of the activity to the total number of observations taken will approximate the percentage of time that the activity is in that given state.

Note that random observations are very critical for a work sampling study. Reduce the probability that job applicants once selected would leave shortly 5. Though theoretically recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of applications. Identify and prepare potential job applicants 7. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost 3. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs. The result is a pool of application from which new employees are selected.

Help increase success rate of selection process by reducing number of under-qualified or over-qualified applications. Determine the present and future requirements in conjunction with personnel planning and job analysis activities 2. The Process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted.

Human Resource Management | Human Resources | Human Resource Management

Evaluate effectiveness of various recruitment techniques and sources for job applicants. Meet legal and social obligations 6.

Candidates already oriented towards 2. Politics play greater roles 4. Employee morale and motivation is 5. Morale problem for those not enhanced promoted. It abets raiding organization 3. Organizations have better knowledge affected about internal candidates 4. Old concept of doing things 2. Less Costly 1. Candidates current work may be 3. Besides this there are some other tests also like Interest Tests activity preferences.

The basic objective is to reject misfits. Pr elim ina r y I nt er view: The purpose of preliminary interviews is basically to eliminate unqualified applications based on information supplied in application forms. Interviews can be One-to-One. Panel Interview.

Scope for resentment. Graphology Test Handwriting. Besides there can be Structured and Unstructured interviews. Adjustment of new employees takes longer time. Selection is concerned with picking up the right candidates from a pool of applicants.

Chances of creeping in false positive and false negative errors 4. On the other hands preliminary interviews is often called a courtesy interview and is a good public relations exercise.

Benefits of new skills and talents 2. There are various types of tests conducted depending upon the jobs and the company. Selection is the process of picking up individuals out of the pool of job applicants with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. The final decision has to be made out of applicants who Better morale and motivation associated with internal recruiting is denied 2. Stress Interviews. Medical Tests. Selec t io n Test s: Jobseekers who past the preliminary interviews are called for tests.

A formal definition of Selection is as under Definit io n o f Selec t io n: Reference checks can be through formal letters. Recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many candidates as possible. Selec t io n Dec isio n: After obtaining all the information.

Behavioral Interviews. Selection 1. Psychometric Tests etc. Benefits of new experiences 3. Selection on the other hand is negative in its application in as much as it seeks to eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible in order to identify the right candidates.

Em plo ym ent Int er view: The next step in selection is employment interview. It is considered to be an excellent selection device. However it is merely a formality and selections decisions are seldom affected by it. Personality Tests. These tests can be Aptitude Tests.

Recruitment 1. Reference checks and background checks are conducted to verify the information provided by the candidates. Compliance with reservation policy becomes easy 4. Recruitment refers to the process of identifying and encouraging prospective employees to apply for jobs. It is costly method 3. Trained the selectors 3. Determine aids to be used for selection process 4. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of people.

Relia bilit y: A reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision. After the selection decision is made. Involve line managers at all stages 6. After the job offer is made and candidates accept the offer. Pr essur e: Pressure brought on selectors by politicians.

Va lidit y: A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who can perform well and those who will not. J ob Offer: The next step in selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate passing the physical examination. Here is a need to prepare a formal contract of employment.

Detailed job descriptions and job specifications prepared in advance and endorsed by personnel and line management 2. Attempt to validate the procedure 7.

However it does not predict the job success accurately. It is made by way of letter of appointment. The views of line managers are considered generally because it is the line manager who is responsible for the performance of the new employee. Per c ept io n: We all perceive the world differently.

Fa ir ness: Barriers of fairness includes discrimination against religion. Check competence of recruitment consultants before retention 5. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition.

Development activities such as those supplied by management development programs are generally voluntary in nature. The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. Development is not primarily skills oriented. That any training and development program must contain an element of education is well understood by HR Specialists. No training program is complete without an element of education.

In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on part time basis. It is a theoretical learning in classrooms. Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills.

Instead it provides the general knowledge and attitudes. Any such program has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics proposed to discuss. Development and Education. Development means those learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow. Anyways education is common to all employees. The education is more important for managers and executives rather than low cadre workers. An employee undergoing training is presumed to have had some formal education.

Development provides knowledge about business environment. Hence we can say that Training is offered to operatives. CEOs are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Making them Self-starters Committed Motivated Result oriented Sensitive to environment Understand use of power Creating self awareness Develop inspiring leadership styles Instill zest for excellence Teach them about effective communication To subordinate their functional loyalties to the interests of the organization Difference between Training and Development Training Training is skills focused Training is presumed to have a formal education Training needs depend upon lack or deficiency in skills Trainings are generally need based Training is a narrower concept focused on job related skills Training may not include development Training is aimed at improving related efficiency and performance What are the Training Inputs?

Trainers can be informed about the broader needs in advance Trainers Perception Gaps can be reduced between employees and their supervisors Trainers can design course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants Diagnosis of causes of performance deficiencies can be done Methods of Training On the Job Trainings: These methods are generally applied on the workplace while employees is actually working. Advantages of On-the-Job Training: It is directly in the context of job It is often informal It is most effective because it is learning by experience Following are the on-the-job methods.

Human Resource Management

Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings a. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities. Following are the off-the-job methods. The objective is to give a comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments. Advantage — employee gets to know how his own and other departments also function. No flexibility for different audience. Advantages of Off-the-Job Training: Trainers are usually experienced enough to train It is systematically organized Efficiently created programs may add lot of value Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training: It is not directly in the context of job It is often formal It is not based on experience It is least expensive Trainees may not be highly motivated It is more artificial in nature Off the Job Training Methods 1.

Disadvantages — One-way communication. It is least expensive Trainees are highly motivated It is free from artificial classroom situations Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training: Trainer may not be experienced enough to train It is not systematically organized Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards On the Job Training Methods 1. Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to learn the functions of job.

It is not learning by practice. Internships and Assistantships: An intern or an assistants are recruited to perform a specific time-bound jobs or projects during their education. Likely to boredom. Cost per trainee is low. Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation and trainer is supposed to analyze and give his conclusions in writing.

It may consist a part of their educational courses. Disadvantages — Low popularity. No authentic feedback mechanism. Interdepartmental coordination can be improved. It is One-way communication. Job Coaching: The cases are generally based on Job Instruction: It may consist an instruction or directions to perform a particular task or a function.

Disadvantage — It may become too much for an employee to learn. No feedback mechanism. Job Rotation: In this method. Advantage — It can be used for large groups.

It may be in the form of orders or steps to perform a task. Classroom Lectures: It is a verbal lecture presentation by an instructor to a large audience. It can be done using Films. Advantages — Wide range of realistic examples. Employees basic talents may remain under utilized. Off the Job Trainings: These are used away from work places while employees are not working like classroom trainings. Employers and B Schools operating distantly 7. Creations of effective training evaluation system Advantages — increased ability to empathize.

Disadvantages — Scope for learning is less. Advantages — Self paced. Inadequate Training budget 3. Disadvantages — High cost. Comprehensive and Systematic Approach 4. Programmed Instructions: Provided in the form of blocks either in book or a teaching machine using questions and Feedbacks without the intervention of trainer. Laboratory Training Barriers to Effective Training: These are generally used in MDP. There is no preplanned agenda and it is instant.

Large scale poaching of trained staff 5. Disadvantage — Participants may resort to their old habits after the training. Continuous and Ongoing approach 5. Education degrees lack skills 4. Promoting Learning as Fundamental Value 6. Attitudinal change is another result.

Computer Aided Instructions: It is extension of PI method. Lack of Management commitment 2. Advantages — Provides accountabilities. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. Management Commitment 2. It is more emotional orientation and improves interpersonal relationships.

Non-coordination from workers due to downsizing trends 6. Role Plays: Here trainees assume the part of the specific personalities in a case study and enact it in front of the audience. Sensitivity Trainings: This is more from the point of view of behavioral assessment.

Wrong perceptions of employees What is the difference between induction and orientation? Human Resource Management K. Human Resource Management: Text and Cases Product Condition: Human Resource Management V. Rao Excel Books Paperback: Decenzo, Stephen P. Robbins, Susan L. Verhulst Wiley Edition no. Human Resource Management Dr. No new offers available. Leave A Reply. What are the criteria for evaluation? Jobs are ranked not jobholders Scope of Job Evaluation The job evaluation is done for the purpose of wage and salary differentials.

Job is not broken down into factors etc. Methods of evaluation to be used 2. Contents of Job Specifications 1. Job Evaluation helps to determine wages and salary grades for all jobs. A perception of inequity is a sure way of de-motivating an employee.

Clearly remuneration must be based on the relative worth of each job. The worth of the job is then taken by adding together all the point values. It is based on the job as a whole and the differentiation is made on the basis of job classes and grades. Further the worker becomes more valuable to the organization. Pitfalls of Job Evaluation: On the negative side. Here jobs remain unchanged. Specification of Individual Tasks 2.

Besides jobs may not improve the relationships between task. Specification of Methods of Tasks Performance 3. Work simplification is used when jobs are not specialized. Periodic job changes can improve interdepartmental cooperation. In this method it is important to form a grade description to cover discernible differences in skills. Job is simplified or specialized.

On the positive side. Workers become more competent in several jobs. The job is broken down into small parts and each part is assigned to an individual.

Further training costs also rise and it can also Definition 1: Integration of work. To be more specific. Job Rotation: When incumbents become bore of routine jobs. Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed.

Additional features in job meet certain psychological needs of jobholders due to skill variety. Workload increases 5. Worker Paced Control 5. In other words. Task Variety 2. Meaningful Work Modules 3. It means passing on more authority and responsibility. Unions resistance. Empowerment is a by-product of job enrichment. Benefits of Job enrichment 1. There is only horizontal expansion. Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification.

As per the two-factor motivation theory. Jobs may still remain boring and routine Job Enrichment: Full Ability Utilization 4. For this employees also need to be trained to adjust to the new system. Demerits of Job Enrichment 1. High Training Costs 2. It is with same skills taking additional responsibilities like extending working hours etc. The employee does more planning and controlling with less supervision but more self-evaluation.

An enriched job will have more responsibility. Job enrichment itself might not be a great motivator since it is job-intrinsic factor. Job enlargement may involve breaking up of the existing work system and redesigning a new work system. Job enlargement is said to contribute to employee motivation but the claim is not validated in practice.

Job enrichment stimulates improvements in other areas of organization. Unions demand pay—hike 6. Lazy employees may not be able to take additional responsibilities and power. Redesigning existing work system required 3. It should be preceded by hygienic factors etc.

It also adds to employee self-esteem and self-control. It benefits employee and organization in terms of increased motivation. Job Enlargement: It means expanding the number of tasks. Benefits of Job Enlargement: Productivity may not increase necessarily 4.

Training requirements are reduced and it benefits the organizations in terms of cost. Job design is a conscious effort to organize tasks. High Performance Work Design: Improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set leads to high performance work design. It also improves workers self image. It starts from the principle of autonomous groups working and developing an approach.

All these factors lead to increased level of motivation and hence make the jobs more motivated. Autonomous of Self-Directed Teams: Empowerment results in self-directed work teams. So we can say that Designing Jobs is actually creating Motivated Jobs. Workers become more competent in several jobs rather than only one. Hence job rotation helps the job become more motivating. Simplified jobs are easy to perform hence employees find it easy to do.

Job enlargement involves expanding number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job. How a job design creates a motivating job can be seen with the help of certain components of job design. Job enrichment involves improving task efficiency and human satisfaction. Work simplification simplifies the job by breaking down the job into small parts. However due to bureaucracy high performance work design does not work.

Job enrichment provides greater scope for personal achievement and recognition. Workers participation may affect the enrichment process itself. Periodic job change can improve inter-departmental cooperation.

It improves the intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities are needed to perform a job. Job enrichment assumes that workers want more responsibilities and those workers who are motivated by less responsibility. Change is difficult to implement and is always resisted as job enrichment brings in a changes the responsibility. Operational flexibility is important and there is the need for employees to gain and apply new skills quickly with minimum supervision.

An enriched job gives vertical enrichment in the form of more responsibility and autonomy and a horizontal enrichment in the form of variety of tasks and more growth opportunities. The attitudes related to job may be wages. Considering above examples. A self —directed team is an intact group of employees responsible for whole work segment. Job rotation means movement of employees of job to job across the organization.

Consequently it provides a high level of motivation to employees because jobs itself become motivators. Job design affects employee productivity. In short job satisfaction is a general attitude. Components of Job Satisfaction Personal factors: Education and Personality. Advantages of Work SamplingIt is relatively inexpensive to use and extremely helpful in providing a deeper understanding of all types of operations.

Job inherent factors: Type of work. Many studies make use of off-shift technicians or operators to take the observations. Work sampling Methodology Measuring and quantifying activities"A measurement technique for the quantitative analysis of non-repetitive or irregularly occurring activity. Also assume that random observations were made of the operator and during 24 of these he or she was observed to be idle.

Size of plant Management controlled factors: Fringe benefits. When properly used. Advancement opportunities and Working conditions. Occupational status. Work sampling operates by an observer taking a series of random observations on a particular "thing" of interest machine. When enough samples are taken.

Evaluate effectiveness of various recruitment techniques and sources for job applicants. Determine the present and future requirements in conjunction with personnel planning and job analysis activities 2.

A brief example might be that 77 of observations showed a machine to be running. Reduce the probability that job applicants once selected would leave shortly 5. Meet legal and social obligations 6. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost 3. The result is a pool of application from which new employees are selected.

Help increase success rate of selection process by reducing number of under-qualified or over- qualified applications. Recruitment is understood as the process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs.

The Process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The ratio of the number of observations of a given state of the activity to the total number of observations taken will approximate the percentage of time that the activity is in that given state. We might then conclude. Though theoretically recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of applications. Note that random observations are very critical for a work sampling study. Identify and prepare potential job applicants 7.

Besides this there are some other tests also like Morale problem for those not enhanced promoted. Preliminary Interview: The purpose of preliminary interviews is basically to eliminate unqualified applications based on information supplied in application forms. Compliance with reservation policy denied becomes easy 2.

A formal definition of Selection is as under Definition of Selection: On the other hands preliminary interviews is often called a courtesy interview and is a good public relations exercise. Less Costly 1. Candidates already oriented towards 2. Selection is the process of picking up individuals out of the pool of job applicants with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization.

Benefits of new skills and talents 1. Selection is concerned with picking up identifying and encouraging the right candidates from a pool of prospective employees to apply for applicants. It is costly method 4. It abets raiding organization 3. Selection Tests: Jobseekers who past the preliminary interviews are called for tests.

Recruitment refers to the process of 1. Employee morale and motivation is 5. Recruitment Selection 1. Old concept of doing things 2. Politics play greater roles 4.

Chances of creeping in false positive heartburn are avoided. Scope for resentment. These tests can be Aptitude Tests. Better morale and motivation 2.

Candidates current work may be 3. Personality Tests. The basic objective is to reject misfits. Benefits of new experiences associated with internal recruiting is 3. Selection on the other hand is negative 2.

There are various types of tests conducted depending upon the jobs and the company. Recruitment is said to be positive in its in its application in as much as it seeks approach as it seeks to attract as many to eliminate as many unqualified candidates as possible.

Organizations have better knowledge affected about internal candidates 4. Adjustment of new employees takes longer time. Graphology Test Handwriting.

Check competence of recruitment consultants before retention 5. Panel Interview. Stress Interviews. Psychometric Tests etc. Pressure brought on selectors by politicians. Job Offer: The next step in selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. It is considered to be an excellent selection device. A reliable test may fail to predict job performance with precision. Here is a need to prepare a formal contract of employment.

Reference checks can be through formal letters. It is made by way of letter of appointment. Involve line managers at all stages 6. We all perceive the world differently. Behavioral Interviews. Employment Interview: The next step in selection is employment interview. Medical Tests. Trained the selectors 3. Detailed job descriptions and job specifications prepared in advance and endorsed by personnel and line management 2. A test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who can perform well and those who will not.

Interest Tests activity preferences. Contract of Employment: After the job offer is made and candidates accept the offer. The views of line managers are considered generally because it is the line manager who is responsible for the performance of the new employee.

Besides there can be Structured and Unstructured interviews. However it does not predict the job success accurately. Determine aids to be used for selection process 4.

Physical Examination: After the selection decision is made. The final decision has to be made out of applicants who have passed preliminary interviews. Selection Decision: After obtaining all the information. Our limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of people. Reference checks and background checks are conducted to verify the information provided by the candidates.

Attempt to validate the procedure 7. However it is merely a formality and selections decisions are seldom affected by it.

Notes pdf hr mba

Barriers of fairness includes discrimination against religion. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate passing the physical examination. Interviews can be One-to-One. Hence we can say that Training is offered to operatives. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development means those learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow.

Development provides knowledge about business environment. The education is more important for managers and executives rather than low cadre workers. Creating self awareness 3. Develop inspiring leadership styles 4. To subordinate their functional loyalties to the interests of the organization Difference between Training and Development Training Development Training is skills focused Development is creating learning abilities In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on part time basis.

Development is not primarily skills oriented. Development and Education. Anyways education is common to all employees. No training program is complete without an element of education.

Instill zest for excellence 5. Teach them about effective communication 6. Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. An employee undergoing training is presumed to have had some formal education. That any training and development program must contain an element of education is well understood by HR Specialists.

The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. It is a theoretical learning in classrooms. Development activities such as those supplied by management development programs are generally voluntary in nature. Any such program has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics proposed to discuss.

CEOs are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Instead it provides the general knowledge and attitudes. Attitude Surveys 5. Interviews 3. Performance Appraisals 2. Training is presumed to have a formal Development is not education dependent education Training needs depend upon lack or Development depends on personal drive deficiency in skills and ambition Trainings are generally need based Development is voluntary Training is a narrower concept focused on Development is a broader concept focused job related skills on personality development Training may not include development Development includes training wherever necessary Training is aimed at improving job related Development aims at overall personal efficiency and performance effectiveness including job efficiencies What are the Training Inputs?

Questionnaires 4. Work Sampling 7. Training Progress Feedback 6. Job Coaching: Advantages of Off-the-Job Training: Organizational Goals and Objectives 2. Trainers Perception Gaps can be reduced between employees and their supervisorsTrainers can design course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants 3. Diagnosis of causes of performance deficiencies can be done Methods of Training On the Job Trainings: These methods are generally applied on the workplace while employees is actually working.

It may be in the form of orders or steps to perform a task. The objective is to give a comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments. Internships and Assistantships: An intern or an assistants are recruited to perform a specific time-bound jobs or projects during their education.

Advantage — employee gets to know how his own and other departments also function. Organizational Climate Indices 4. Quality Circles 8. Job Instruction: It may consist an instruction or directions to perform a particular task or a function. Trainers can be informed about the broader needs in advance 2. It may consist a part of their educational courses. Customer Satisfaction Survey 9. Following are the on-the-job methods.

Disadvantage — It may become too much for an employee to learn. Interdepartmental coordination can be improved. Efficiency Indices 5. Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to learn the functions of job. Following are the off-the-job methods. Off the Job Trainings: These are used away from work places while employees are not working like classroom trainings. Advantages of On-the-Job Training: It is directly in the context of job It is often informal It is most effective because it is learning by experience It is least expensive Trainees are highly motivated It is free from artificial classroom situations Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training: Trainer may not be experienced enough to train It is not systematically organized Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards On the Job Training Methods 1.

In this method. Exit Interviews 6. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities. Employees basic talents may remain under utilized.

Attitudinal change is another result. Advantages — Wide range of realistic examples. Advantages — increased ability to empathize. No flexibility for different audience. Cost per trainee is low.

It is One-way communication. Advantage — It can be used for large groups. Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings a. Advantages — Self paced. Advantages — Provides accountabilities.. Likely to boredom.

Non-coordination from workers due to downsizing trends 6. Role Plays: Here trainees assume the part of the specific personalities in a case study and enact it in front of the audience. No feedback mechanism.

Programmed Instructions: Provided in the form of blocks either in book or a teaching machine using questions and Feedbacks without the intervention of trainer. Disadvantages — Low popularity. There is no preplanned agenda and it is instant. The cases are generally based on actual organizational situations. Disadvantages — One- way communication.

Laboratory Training Barriers to Effective Training: It is not learning by practice. Disadvantage — Participants may resort to their old habits after the training. No authentic feedback mechanism. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. It can be done using Films. Large scale poaching of trained staff 5. Disadvantages — High cost. Disadvantages — Scope for learning is less. Inadequate Training budget 3. Sensitivity Trainings: This is more from the point of view of behavioral assessment.

Trainers are usually experienced enough to train It is systematically organized Efficiently created programs may add lot of value Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training: It is not directly in the context of job It is often formal It is not based on experience It is least expensive Trainees may not be highly motivated It is more artificial in nature Off the Job Training Methods 1.

Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation and trainer is supposed to analyze and give his conclusions in writing. Computer Aided Instructions: It is extension of PI method. Employers and B Schools operating distantly It is more emotional orientation and improves interpersonal relationships.

Classroom Lectures: It is a verbal lecture presentation by an instructor to a large audience. These are generally used in MDP.

Education degrees lack skills 4. Lack of Management commitment 2. Management Commitment 2.

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To remove their anxiety about new workplace 3. Daily Work Routine 2. Organization Profile 3. Promoting Learning as Fundamental Value 6. Too much information 3.

Determine information new employee wants to know 3. Completion of Paperwork Problems of Orientations 1. Continuous and Ongoing approach 5. Detailed Orientation PresentationsPurpose of Orientation 1. Determine how to present information 4. To remove worries about their job performance 5.

Individual or Group 3. Importance of Jobs to the organization 4. Comprehensive and Systematic Approach 4. Demanding tasks where failure chances are high 6.

Employee thrown into action soon 7. Formal or Informal 2.