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Caldwell wrote his Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages has now been given up.. Subramanya or Agastya. Tamil is the oldest and the most cultivated of the Dravidian or South Indian family of languages.
Sanskrit nd seem to have always held that Tamil was an Tamil. During the early Relationship centuries of the Christian era.
The radical feature of a language explained in this fourfold classification. Most of them were acquainted with both Tamil and Sanskrit yet they had greater love and reverence for the latter. Morphologically the one has no connection with the other.! They did not attribute its origin to Siva. Sesha Iyengar has some interesting observations to make on this question.
Srinivasa Aiyangar. But when they came under the influence of Sanskrit culture. The existence of a Tamilian substratum in all the modern dialects of India which the classical and of the profound influence. Sanskrit may contribute to the polish of the South Sanskrit.
The ancient or classical dialect of this language. Many Sanskrit words connected with the arts of peace were borrowed from the Dravidian. The non-Sanskrit portion of the Dravidian languages exceeds the Sanskrit portion. In its more primitive words. Tamil is not dependent on Sanskrit for the full expression of thought. According to Dr. The Dravidian dialects affected profoundly the sounds. The finest works in Tamil. Tamil has exercised on the formation and.
They are only to one another what a cocoa tree would be to a carrot plant. The Tamil language retains an alphabet has several letters of peculiar powers.
These languages. Julien Vinson says. The base of Tamil. But the introduction of all these did not take place at one and the same period. Sesha Iyengar. Sesha Iyengar has written. But there is much loose talk on importing wholesale foreign terms..
As to who first brought the alphabet i The Ancient Dravidians by T. In this connection. The Tamil Alphabet. There were. The introduction of the Vatteluttu alphabet must have taken place long before the fourth or fifth century B. A language. While some may not agree with everything Mr. It has to grow and borrow and adapt foreign words without false pride or narrow bigotry. The latter is known as the Grantha-Tamil alphabet. The other letter. Among The vast difference that exists between Tamil and the Aryan languages in their vocabulary.
The i etr. The sound of it is midway between the Arabic ghayn and the. There are thirty-one letters twelve vowels and eighteen consonants and one semi-vowel. This alphabet. Burnell seems to think that Vatteluttu had an independent source and had nothing to do with the Brahmi alphabet of Northern India.
It has been variously. The Present-day represented by the symbol a. This angularity was due to the facility in writing on palm leaves with an iron stylus. Let us now take the number. There are no separate symbols for aspirate hard consonants. For instance. The sounds are. Coming now to the history of the Tamil language. Early Tamil was the language used by the writers of the academic and the classic periods. And the peculiarities of this Tamil may be observed in the literature of those times.
Tamil words do not begin with such sounds. XXVI transliterated in rl. We shall briefly indicate the characteristics of each period. The letter p has the sound of a rough r and that of tr.
The standard grammars of the epoch were the TolJcappiyam. History of the Tamil Language. The Tamil consonants comprise only the unaspirate hard consonants.
Sanskrit words were very sparingly used and even these were mutilated in their form. The story of how cannot be told here. Words of foreign origin were never introduced. There are. For poetry or metrical composition.
The literature of this epoch consists of hymns to Siva and Vishnu and of the accounts of the life and adventures of The Siva and Subrahmanya. Truth was thrown T. Sanskrit words. Rama and Krishna.
The subject-matter of reigning kings. Rhyme and antadi forms were introduced to render the recital of sacred songs easier. These were introduced with their alankaras or embellishments.
Nambi's Ahapporul. As it was a period of struggle for religious supremacy every one of the four sects attempted to excel the rest by extolling and exaggerating its own doctrines.
Affectation and artificiality even in excess were considered a literary excellence. Buddhism being deprived of following in this land and Jainism crippled.
As for their style. Some are on morality. The descriptions of events and scenery are all faithful and true to nature. Some of them depict poverty. Then for about half-a-century there was a lull. And it was only during the first half of the last century that the vernacular literature began to revive. To the Tamils the modern period which begins from the thirteenth century is important in every respect. Tamil and Telugu was encouraged. Brahmanical influence was in the ascendant.
Christian and Islamic literatures. Till and the Pandyas were Telugu empire was existence on the banks of the powerful countries — With the change in government.. The learning of Sanskrit. Thus Chintamani. The There is nothing new in the grammar of this period. Then came the Mahratta and the Musalman hordes from the north. Several original works in all these languages were written. Persian or English.
The ancient kingdoms Modern Tamil. They had their own dances and music vocal and instrumental. It gives a vivid description of the stage. Isai Music and Natakani Drama. Music too. Tradition says that Agastya was the only grammarian who wrote complete treatises on the grammar of all the three classes of Tamil. Tamil Literature — Its Classification.
They developed the art of dancing to a high degree of perfection and many treatises were written on this fine art even their gods had their characteristic favourite classes. During the early centuries of the Christian era attention seems to have been paid by the Tamils to all the three.
Poetry was the only medium of literary expression of thought in Tamil till about the beginning of the last century. For these quasireligious compositions all kinds of metres enumerated in the grammar books on prosody were freely made use of. Among the first to the Dravidian tribes of South India. Indian grammarians have divided Tamil literature into three namely Iyal belles-lettres. The kalambakam. The only ancient Tamil work of the nature of the drama that has come down to us is the Silappadikaram third century.
Of these the alone now survives. Perhaps Makarayal. With them the Dravidian music and dances became practically extinct. And the per-yal big ' yal which is supposed to have been in use in the days of Agastya had become extinct even before the third century a. It was of four kinds. Their places were gradually taken up by the Indo-Aryan ragams and natyams. During festivals and processions of gods. No one can now say what those pans and dances were like. As has Classification already been explained religion pervades almost tne whole of every literature in India.
The same institution was carried to the West Coast. It is said to have had one thousand strings. Hundreds of dancing girls or gandharvis were attached This was the origin of the institution to every important temple. The following gives a tolerably accurate outline of the important stages in the progress of Tamil literature.
MakaraPer-yal had 21 strings. Sakotayal and Senkottiyal. We table 2 shall now come to the classification of Iyal. It was only during the eighteenth century that drama and music and Arunachala Kavi a. A brief description of the — — The works on music. Ill J A. Ramachandra Dikshitar states pp.
The real history of Tamil literature begins with the Sangam Academies which to a. Kachiyappa's Kandapuranam. Tolkappiyam A. Adiyarkunallar Modern Grammar: Parimelalagar etc. II Classic or j Agastyam. This millennium might perhaps appear to be a very long period but during the first half of it none of the extant Tamil works. Virasoliyam and Nannul A. The ancient sangams or l classics of the societies of learned Tamil people frequently refer to men.
VI Miscellaneous The Sangams. Madura bears the name of Kudal. This is certainly erroneous. The name academy therefore.
According to Tamil writers there were three sangams in the Pandya country at different periods. We shall not therefore be wrong if we look for the foundation of the first Tamil Academy or Sangam somewhere between the sixth and fourth centuries before the Christian era. Hence they had no occasion to mention it and did not mention it. Of the three academies the second was more or less continuous with the first. The use of pure Tamil words like Eluthu and Suvadi by Agastya proves unmistak?
Tamil literature of course did not begin only with the founding of Academies as indicated in the table. Purnalingam Pillai. The only authors of this period about whom any account. This land consisting of forty-nine nads inclusive of Kollam and.
The identification of Ten South Madura. That literature always precedes grammar is a stern philological fact recognized by Agastya and later grammarians. Chief of them. Apparently all these had been lost long before the tenth or eleventh century. The First N or have any of the writings attributed to this academy come down to us in their entirety. It is therefore almost certain that some sort of literature and also good poets must have existed before the academic era but nothing can at present be asserted about it in the absence of any grammar for this.
Regarding the First Academy. Regarding the destruction of this place there are certain allusions both in the Madura Stalapurana and in the Silappadikaram.
The life of Agastya is clothed in myth but this much is certain that he was a Brahman of North India and that he led the first colony of Brahmans which settled in the Tamil districts. He is said to have had twelve students. The learned commentator of the latter work writes as follows Between the rivers Kumari and Pahruli there existed an extensive continent occupying an area of Kavadams a Kavadarri being equal to ten miles. The rest of the members seem to be half mythical persons.
According to the Payiram to the Tolkappiyam the latter was presented to the Academy and won its approval. He adds a foot-note "Professor V. If this account has any significance.. Nothing definite can be said about the foundation of the third Sangam except that it had its seat at the shall We the most modern Madura. It must. The only work of the Second Sangam which has come down us is the Tolkappiyam. AH the works of this academy have also been irretrievably lost. Nothing further is known about Tolkappiyar.
Roughly then. Academy is equally The Second D "If the author of the Tirukkural could be proved to have lived in the second century B..
Language has life and growth. To secure. Treatises were written on prosody. The canons of literary criticism were severe and were applied impartially. Poetical dictionaries or nikhanduz were compiled in order to check the indiscriminate and unlicensed introduction of alien words in the Tamil vocabulary. This linguistic principle was clearly understood and fully recognised by the founders of the Tamil academies. The influence of these academies is markedly seen in the Tamil writings which received their approval.
The French Academy was established in a These and many other restrictions on the free growth of the language were dealt with in the first Tamil grammar. In this way the Tamil language. Since narai and kuruhu are suffixed to the titles of works. The works attributed to the second Sangam are Kali. Titles of distinction were also conferred on them. Tolkappiyam was the grammar during the period of the.
Instances of the Tamil kings honouring poets. It is generally believed that works of the first Sangam are lost. The extant Poripadol may be the composition of the third Sangam rather than that of the first. With regard to the compositions of the we have to take it that all of them except Tolifcappiyam have been lost.
The three parts of it are Eluthu Orthography. It is the oldest extant Tamil grammar. The Extant Sangam Works. It treats clearly T. Sol Etymology. Liberal presents in the shape of money. Viyalamalai Ahaval. Iyal or Natural Tamil. According to the tradition which finds a mention in the famous commentary on the Iraiyanar Ahapporal the following are given as the accredited works of the first Sangam First Sangam Paripadal. Mullai jungle..
We have already pointed out that the Tamil language is classified under three broad sections. There are a few other classifications. Kurinchi mountain regions. These classifications are well explained in the following quotation from Tamil Literature by the late Mr. Isai Music and Natakam Drama.
It is a peculiarity a peculiarity which will show the critical culture of the Tamilar that the gender classification is based on the signification of words. Purnalingam Pillai: Porul substance. In this the author has attempted at finding the root meanings of words.
It is the only work from which: Of these Aham. Palai desert. Poruladikaram is valuable as it gives us a glimpse of the political. Iyal Natural. The first part deals a Eluthu with Letters. Love is true or natural.
Marriage was solemnised by the parents on the self-choice of the lovers. This is a bare outline of Aham. Besides these. Such peculiarities are comprised under fourteen heads. True love is considered under five aspects. The seven divisions of puram. The importance of Tolkappiyam is further enhanced by several commentators among whom figure 1 Ilampuranar. The loyal subjects of the victor pay him their joyful tribute of laudatory odes or encomia.
Valuii mimosa flectuosa bears white flowers. In addition to the tradition transmitted in the commentary on the Iraiyanar Ahapporul. Ulinai is a species of cotton plant whose shoots are golden.
Space forbids us to offer anything but the briefest notice on the major works of the third Sangam. While no works of the First Sangam have come down to us. It is a symbol of inexhaustible energy. It systematic invasions of the raiders' territories. Every part again deals with five thinais. Pannadutanda Pandiyan Maran Valudi.
Nacchinarkiniyar has written a gloss on twenty verses because. Its general theme is love and its compilation was at the instance of a Pandyan king. It contains pne hundred and. The Aingurunuru means literally the short five hundred.
The verses deal with the five thinais. The Padirruppattu the Ten Tens is an anthology of enormous importance. The Kalittogai. In attributed to as many as poets. It would appear that the compilation of the extant work was effected under the patronage of the chieftain this The Kuruntogai literally means a collection of work is brought together a number of verses of Purl identified with North Malabar by name Purikko.
Swaminatha Aiyar. Each verse.
Here we are introduced to a number of kings of the Cera dynasty. It contains ahaval verses and the whole book can be conveniently divided into five parts. It is unfortunate that as many as forty-six verses of this important work are lost.
Of the ten books into which the whole work is divided. The Paripadal of the third Academy is said to consist of seventy stanzas attributed as usual to multifarious poets. Ili it The Narrinal contains we short poems. As in the Narrinai the theme of the work is love and the stanzas can be brought under the category of the five thinais.
There is an ancient commentary of Parimelalagar which has been printed with the available texts by Mahamahopadhyaya U. If both are 'different works.. This collection contains stanzas in the ahaval metre'. In the case of this work. There was an ancient gloss on the work by the well-known commentator Per-Asiriyar which has since become lost. The Paripadal literally stanzas of strophic metre is according to tradition a composition of the first Academy as well as the third Academy.
Purananuru and Pattupattu. Five of them belong to a peculiar class called Arruppadai.. This arrangement and description are given by J. Thus the anthology contains odes ranging from the epoch of the First Sangam to that of Post-Sangam. An idyll is a some picturesque scene or incident. As many The Purananuru otherwise known as Purappattu or simply Puram a valuable anthology of stanzas in ahaval form.
Cola Nalluttiran and Nallanduvanar are the poets who composed the various songs in the work. The following is an attempt to name them in a probable time order. It also contains the poems of Murinjiyur Mudinagarayar. It is addressed to another seeker for favours by one who has already benefited munificently at the hands of the patron. Whatever may be the date of its compilation. It deals with war and matters of state. But it is generally believed that one of the five poets. We have no prima facie evidence as to the name of the compiler and the patron at whose instance the work was compiled.
It is not known by whom and when. An arruppadai is a poem in which a bard or ministrel is recommended to go to a patron to solicit help from him. Only one of them differs from the others.
The celebrated commentator Nacchinarkiniyar has written a gloss on it. It contains stanzas in the ahaval metre and is divided into three as is The Neduntogai. Marudan Ilanaganar. There is a view that the work is a later compilation inasmuch as the name of Poygaiyar..
Its general theme is love. The length of the stanzas varies from thirteen to thirty-seven lines. It is the counterpart of the preceding work. It was accomplished under the distinguished auspices of the Pandyan king Ukkirapperuvaludi.
Manimidaipavalam of and Nittilakkovai of stanzas. The poems are by various authors. It is the longest of the Idylls containing lines. It contains lines.
Kanchi and its king are celebrated in this Poem. Good Long Cold Wind was written. Maduraikanchi lit. As a religious poem it is greatly valued by Saivites.
A Mountain Song was written. It testifies to the growing prosperity of Kaviripattinam under the benevolent rule of Karikala Colan. A jungle Song was written by Napoothanar.
Afullaipottu It is generally Neduncheliyan. Mankudi Maruthanar. Its subject-matter greatly resembles that of Mullaipattu. It has a fine description of the cold season. It depicts also the life of ancient Tamils. The Secretion oozing from a Hill. It is a poem of lines. Tirumurugarruppadai lit. It contains description of the war-god. Pattinapalai lit. It and has lines. It is based on a contemplated separation of a husband from his wife. A Poem of Recommendation to a Bard 1.
The real value of the poem consists in giving us an idea of the trade relations of Tamil land with foreign countries.
Perumpanarruppadai lit. It contains fine descriptions of mountain by the great scenery. The Echo Muruga and his different shrines on the hills of South India.
There is a legend grown round the origin of the composition of this poem. Kurinchipattu lit. Sirupanarruppadai lit. A Poem of Recommendation to a Bard 5. Nedunalvadai lit. It has beautiful descriptions of mountain scenery. If Tamil poetry is to be restored to its pristine spontaneity and charm. A Poem of Recommendation to a Bard playing the larger yal was written by the author of Pattinapalai.
It speaks of love at first sight.. The poet recommends Karikala Colan to a bard as a patron of literature. The Ettuttogai and the Pattuppattu come under the category of mel-kanakku. Literature embalms the culture. The Tirukkural popularly known as the Muppal is the famous work of the celebrated Tiruvalluvar who lived in the early The term kil-kanakku implies that there was a mel-kanakku.
But if the venba metre is pressed into service. Tirukkural Innilai Tamils centuries ago. There are six sources of Pattuppattu.
Naladiyar 7. Tamil genius never paid much attention to the time element. Ain-thinai-aimbathu Ain-thinai-elupathu Thinai-moll-aimbathu Thinai-malai-nuth- Ceylon records. Of these the most important are the Tamil poems of the period. The works that contain less than composed in different metres. Nanmani-Kadikai Kar-narppathu. Two works like the Naladiyar and the Tirukkural which come under the category of kil-kanakku deal with the three purusftarthas or objects of life.
Kalavali-narppathu Iniathu-narppathu Inna-narppathu 8. The mel-kanakku ranges from 50 to stanzas and is in the ahaval. The remaining sixteen deal both with aham and puram. The next collection of the The Eighteen Minor Works Sangam works comes under the general heading the Padinen-kilkanakku.
Though the scholarly commentary of the illustrious Parimelalagar a happy consummation of Tamil and Sanskrit culture is largely in use.
It consists of chapters. Almost free from the influx of Sanskrit words. The Ideal Citizen -Morality. Aiyar has translated the work into. These are the seven ideals presented by this Prince of Rendered into almost every important European language English.
Two Till recently. We dare not say more. We may mention. This "anthology. From being brave mothers. Even as they are. Space forbids us from giving any detailed description of the contents of the rest of the Eighteen Works which mostly deal with ethics.
It also deals with the three pursuits of human life. This is significant of the fate Time. The Naladiyar comes nearer the Kural than the others in this collection in point of subject-matter including the division of the subjects. While their writings are high and dignified. What remained has been gathered within these togais collections by the selfless compilers.
It contains forty chapters. But for them. Life has turned inwards. The reader would have noticed that many of the works of the Third Sangam are collections. Slowly there is a change. We see side by side an insidious change in the attitude to women. When at last he had lost all his riches. The chief of them are Kappiyam the Five Major — Aln-perum- A fancy has been coined from their names in which the works are conceived to be five principal ornaments on the form of Tamil-anangu the Tamil Muse the works symbolising the tinkling anklet.
The story of this Epic. He Wasted all his wealth and money on this dancing girl and did not care for his devoted wife. Kovalan moved in high social circles and took an active interest in the amusements of the day. It was done. Once his eyes fell on a beautiful young dancing girl Madavi by name.
Swaminatha Aiyar of x. As misfortune would have it. He had a son Kovalan to whom was married a virtuous and devoted lady Kannaki by name. He was the second son of king Ceralatan reigning in the city of Vanji. Returning home. Being a wealthy young man. The Tamilars have been laid under a great debt of gratitude by that great scholar and tireless compiler and learned editor of our days.
He took it to the jeweller's market there to effect a sale. On this account. The story is simple and is as follows: In Kavirippumpattinam. He had nothing to fall back upon except her jewels. The same night he left for Madura with his wife Kannaki. The king without inquiring into the facts of the case impatiently ordered his execution.
She placed one of her costly Silambus anklet— ungrudgingly and willingly at his disposal. Ilango-adigal is the celebrated author of the Silappadikaram. We can give only a brief sketch of the other three works. The last two works are entirely lost to us. The Pandyan King Nedunjeliyan realised his guilt and could not bear it. Through the grace of the deity she got possession of a begging bowl which would be ever full and never empty. Once Udayakumaran. It gives us a true picture of the social and religious life of the people of those days.
A source of information Barring the legendary portions of the twin epics. Kannaki then proceeded westward to the Malainadu Hill country and continued to do penance at the foot of a Vengai tree in the Neduvelkunram. Still Kannaki could not control herself and in a fit of great anger cursed that the whole city be consumed by flames. This is a work which combines in it the three divisions of Tamil and Natakam and Prose as well.
She went before the king and proved her husband's innocence beyond the shadow of a doubt. She had a daughter named Manimekalai by Kovalan. It is indeed a valuable mine of information for re-writing the history of the early Pandya. And so it happened.
He fell down from his seat broken-hearted and died immediately. The various fine arts. The scheme as well as the Iyal. The first is a contribution by a royal author and may be relied upon for details as regards the life in courts. Here she was told that the prince was her husband in a previous birth.
The Manimekalai is a sequel to Silappadikaram. She was then taken by a goddess to Manipallavadvipa where were enshrined the feet of the Buddha.
She too became a nun. It shows the relation of the states with one another. It gives us also types of good and bad womanhood and the ruin of the innocent by the seduction of the latter. These and several other things found mentioned are indeed valuable as throwing sufficient light on the history of the Tamils in the early centuries of the Christian era. It shows how justice was rendered besides other details of administrative interest. But Udayakumaran came to know of this her new disguise.
She then wandered throughout the land visiting several holy places. It is the story of Jivaka from his birth to the attainment of bliss and has a commentary by Nacchinarkiniar.
Sattanar seems to have been an accomplished writer. Jivaka-Chintamani The author of this work is Thirutthakka-Thevar. The last years of her life were spent in that city in a Buddhist nunnery. This was noticed by her husband. That a mass of useful material lies buried in its pages is accepted even by acute critics. Its other title. His fame rests on Jivaka-Chintamani. Besides the classical work Manimekalai. A source of information. At last she settled at Kanchi performing penance and listening to discourses on the righteous laws promulgated by great teachers of various religions.
It is in 13 books or Ilambakams It is noted for its chaste diction and arid contains stanzas. The king had Manimekalai arrested and imprisoned but at the request of the queen. One day the real Kayasandikai herself was seen in the garden and the prince rah after her.
He was born at Mailapur. Simplicity of diction. TO and Since the discovery and publication of the Manimekalai by Mahamahopadhyaya. Many P. They are in merit and historic interest nowhere near the Five Great Epics or rather the three which are xi. Francis of Assisi and other learned saints of the West. Tirujnana Sambandar. The first three Alwars are the earliest of Vaishnava hymnists.
Karaikal Ammaiyar seems to be the earliest of Saiva hymnists. What matters most. Otoe Five They are Nilakesi. There were also other works of which the most important are five. All these belong to Its Literature. The life favourable comparison with St.
The Saiva saints and the ' Vaishnava saints belong to this period. The Saiva saints called the Nalvar vasagar. It is even difficult to definitely assign to him a particular period.
They are all probably the works of Jain authors. The above five works are called the Five Major Epics. The outstanding literature of this period are the Tiruvasagam. Appar and Sundarar. Both these people developed a godly literature in their own way. Tamil language possesses more than sixteen thousand stanzas in praise of God. Appar Sundarar. TAMfL Tiruvasagam: Of these the Tiruvasagam relates an autobiographical tale of the different stages of his spiritual life and experience which ultimately enabled him to attain enjoyment.
One is struck again and again by the similarity of in translating this work thought and even expression between the two books. It is may Dr. Among the accredited devotional works in the Tamil tongue it takes the foremost rank. The Lord was the eternal object of his love. Both feel the separation keenly. This work be regarded as a convenient handbook on mystical theology. Then they marry in public and settle down to the life of householders.
A lover accidentally meets a maid in some solitary mountain glade. It would not be out of place here to give the sum and substance of the story contained in this poem as a layman finds it. Shortly after. Men of deep intuitive insight perceive and perceive rightly. It is difficult to find a parallel in the other languages of the world but it would not be altogether inappropriate to state that the Imitation of Christ by Thomas A.
It is this grief of the lonely wife yearning to join her husband in warm. But it must be remembered that it is only a thin veil covering grand Tirukkovai: Superficial readers devoid of true spiritual acumen are apt to treat this supreme mystic work as an ordinary text-book of love-poetry. The last ten pathikams section of the last collection were his own. This Tamil Vyasa who collected the Saiva hymns and grouped them into eleven tiru-murais lived in Cola-nadu.
They took a local temple and the local deity and wove their songs of mysticism and praise to the Lord round this nucleus. He feels this separation intensely. They travelled from place to place throughout the length and breadth of the Tamil country. The songs were usually ten with a eleventh added in many cases as a signature song. They were deeply moved The other by the decline of their religion and the growing supremacy of Buddhism and Jainism and they dedicated their lives to fighting the apathy and ignorance of their people.
The inappropriateness of the present day lay-sense attached to the chapters on Bliss will be seen from the fact that the fourth and final aspect of life is Vidu—At-one-ment.
The tenth is marked. These too would have been lost to us but for the labours of Nambi Andar Nambi. But today with the polemics a thing of the past. But by some accident. Peyar and Poothatthar. Very little is known of the biographies of Poikayar. The orthodox Vaishnavas hold that the Alwars were the incarnations of the sacred The Alwars. Jainism and Buddhism alike. From this list it will be seen that the largest number of hymns contributed to the Prabandham have been by Tirumangai Alwar and Nammalwar and.
Andal 1. The names of the Alwars. The lives of the Vaishnava saints are found in Guruparamparai or the genealogy of the Gurus and in Alwar Vaipavam or the chronicles of Alwars relating the events and occurrences connected with these saints. Of the 4. Poikayar Puthatthar Conjeevaram.
Tirumangai P. If I cannot excel him, at least I can serve as a scale by which you can, by reason of comparison, understand the greatness of the unblemished Scholar that Valmiki was! The legendary creature Asuna is known to enjoy and thrive on good music and would drop dead on hearing the noisy drum.
My readers! You have all been used to the wide, varied and mellifluous rhythm of all the Great Poets and you are all like the Asuna who has been used to the melody of the lyre.
And, here I come with my noisy drum! Bear with me, my reader, for you have all been used to the pleasing rhythm of great poets who have rendered their verses in widely varying, nonetheless pleasing, metres.
I am a mere noisy drummer. You all are like the legendary Asuna, that cannot bear the noisy and unrhythmic beat of the drum. I have nothing more than this noisy drum beat to offer to you.
Let me just say this much to the Poets who are well-versed in the prosaic, poetic and dramatic elements of the language. There is no use in taking up the words of the lunatic, the fool and the devotee, for a serious pursuit. I am neither learned nor well-versed in the art of poety. Let me just tell this much to all those poets who are masters of both. Of what merit is the word uttered by either the mentally deranged, or the fool, or one whose heart is given to devotion!
Their minds are not in their control and they blabber alike. Consider my words as one of those. End of Payiram. Excellent work Harikrishnan Sir Please continue.
Thank you for your time and effort in this work and May God bless you. I thank you very much for teaching us this great work. I hope you may point out the beauties and intelligence which we usually ignore in our self reading. You are doing a great favour to us, the tamils, by walking us on the sugarcane ocean.
What more can we pay in response than paying our obeisance to you. After reading your simple and clear elucidations, we want to know further. So, may we ask a few questions to you, sir? This word is also a buddhistic jargon. Things materialise from some other material things and not from a void. In my understanding, establishing may be used for forming foundation.
I have forgot the source that rendered me such a different description. Forgive my weak memory. This description suits the hindu philosophic culture that finds the existence in an existential manner that has neither beginning nor end unlike the abrahmic culture that looks at everything in a linear fashion. Your opinion about this kind of interpretation is solicited. In the first poem, our Kamban praises the ultimate truth. In his second poem he praises not the divine celestials, but the humen of satvik nature!!
When the first poem praises the brahmam the ultimate, the second praises the Satvik nature, and the third praises the mantra — Hari om. To the editor of the site: Please pass my questions to him. Thanks for your observation. But it is suggestive. It is my experience that English is a pretty weak language to express Indian concepts. But then I have no option. I had to use it, in my Ramayana series.
Therefore, what I am more concerned about is a near possible expression of the thought, holding the mirror to the Poet, rather than the shades of meanings that are used by particular sects, castes or religion. Therefore, please try to see the expressions in the light of Hinduism. Thanks for the suggestion. These primary concepts of Hinduism, as I have already stated, are looked at, interpreted and expressed in a hundred different words.
I preferred to keep the rendition as simple as possible, without going into all the philosophical debate. A gppd question. Thank you. Who they really can be? I understand the spirit of your questions.
I appreciate your concerns and I sincerely thank you for all that you have said. I can confine myself to a word-for-word rendition into English. Or bring out the spirit behind the expression. Which one do you prefer? If you are ready to take a version that is bland and blunt, o yes, I am ready to serve that way!
But that would not justify the richness of the poetic genius of Kamban. The choice is all yours. Congrats for your web oriented Hinduthuva, I Love that, I like to thank you for the same, please also add some of the pranayanam in audio format, it should help the peoples to know the value of hindu thuiva. I read kamaramayanam its energy given to me. I want full kamarayanam song and with explantion.
How to taken from your site , please guide me. Thank you to author. King Dasaruth said these words: Please send to my email as I do not have a website. Mikka Nandri Mrs Sushila Naidoo. Aaya kalaigal arubaththu naaginaiyum — The 64 traditional sciences eya unarvikkum ennammai- The Mother Goddess who imparts that knowledge.
Ingu Vaaraadu Idar- No ostacle can come my way when she is there. Mama Ramayanayana My story of Ramayana- A three year saga. A humble request to my friends , fans and admirers. I would like to jot a few lines regarding me and the story of Rama. It was from my father that I learnt the Ekasloki Ramayana. Aadho Rama thapo vananu gamanam, Hathwa mrugam kanchanam, Vaidehi haranam, jatayu maranam, Sugreeva sambhashanam, Bali nigrahanam, samudhra tharanam, Lanka pureem dahanam, Paschad Ravana Kumbha karna madanam, Ethat ithi Ramayanam.
This in short is the story of Ramayanam. It was again from him as a baby that I heard the story of Ramayana. It was possibly in the fifth standard that I learnt the Sri Ramodantham , the story of Ramayana which strangely started from the birth of Ravana to Visravas and from then on I have been reading several Ramayana books in several versions. I found that the greatness of Rama as a human being attracted me a lot.
In when I started translating stotra rathnas , I stumbled on several stotras prayers based on this great story. Some of them are: Samkshepa Ramayana — http: Nama Ramayanam — http: Rama Narayana Sthuthi Malayalam — http: Sri Rama Keerthanam — http: Pasurappadi Ramayanam Tamil - http: Gayatri Ramayanam — http: Sri Ramodantham — http: Saptha rishi Ramayanam — http: SAmkshepa Sundara Kandam — http: Raghu Veera Gadhyam- http: I had also earlier translated an Upanishad called Rama Rahsya Upanishad http: Recently God Rama wanted me to translate three versions of Ramayana.
They were: Translation of Adhyathma Ramayana from Malayalam. It was in April that one of my friends requested me to translate Adhyathma Ramayana of Thunjathu Ezhuthachan from Malayalam , which was itself a translation from Sanskrit, so that it can be read during the Karkidaga Masa.
It had 6 Kandams , chapters and verses. I took it up for translation and completed it in 4 months. Later I found that I was the only who has translated this great book in to English and put in the web.
My search also indicates that though there is an English book translating Adhyathma Ramayanam from Sanskrit to English, there was no translation of this extremely popular Malayalam book. This Ramayana is a transcreation of Valimiki Ramayana supposed to be authored by the great Veda Vyasa. Rama by that time was considered as full Avathara of Vishnu and there are more than ten prayers addressed to Rama by various characters of Rama including Kousalya, Khara, Khabanda, Sabari and so on. And the first great Malayalam poet translated in to Malayalam poem , as if it was related by a parrot.
Even today a copy of this book is preserved like a treasure by every Hindu Malayali in his home. Translation of Valmiki Ramayanam from Sanskrit. It was in the month of April that my friend Sri Lakshmanan of Celextel who requested me to take up the translation of Valmiki Ramayanam in to English.
I was reluctant. I told him that I may not live to see its completion but I started translating it and completed it by August