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The plural ending -men occurs in words like: These do not form pairs in pronunciation distinguishing between singular and plu- ral, while with woman — women the pronunciation differs in both syllables: The plural is regular in: Germans, Romans, etc. The -en plural occurs in three nouns: Similarly, count nouns that refer to animals may function as mass nouns to indicate the meat; we find not merely familiar usages such as chicken, rabbit, fish but can also freely form mass nouns elephant, crocodile, etc.
In many cases this type of distinc- tion between count and mass is achieved by separate lexical items: A word normally used as a count noun, i. There are corresponding count nouns for some non-count nouns: Variable Nouns Regular Plural English count nouns have two forms, singular and plural. The vast majority of nouns occur with either singular or plural number, and normally have a plural form which is built up by means of the inflec- tion, or ending, -s: This is the regular plural.
In pronunciation, the voiceless [s] is added to any base singular form ending in any voiceless sound except a sibilant: The voiced [z] is added to any base ending in any voiced sound except a sibilant: The syllable [iz] is added to any base ending in a sibilant: Singular nouns ending in the voiceless fricative -th have a regu- lar plural form if there is a consonant before the -th: In several cases there are both [s] and [z] plu- rals: Latin nouns in -us.
The foreign plural in -i pronounced as [ai] or [i: Only regular plural -uses: Both plurals: The plural forms of corpus and genus are corpora and genera. Latin nouns in -um. Usually foreign plural in -a, pronounced [o]: Only regular plural: Both plurals, normally regular: The plurals media with reference to press and radio and strata with reference to society are sometimes used informally as singular.
The technical singular datum is rather rare while data is used both as a mass noun and as count noun plural: The results of the experiment are still uncertain: Latin nouns in -a. Only foreign plural in -ae pronounced as [ai] or [i: Only regular plural form in -s: Formulas is being increasingly adopted, with formulae [-i: Nouns of Greek origin may also have foreign plurals only: Informal- ly, criteria and phenomena are sometimes used as singulars.
French nouns ending in -eau, pronounced [ou] retain their origi- nal plural, e. Invariable Nouns Unlike variable nouns occurring with both singular and plural number, invariable nouns are used only in the singular or only in the plural. The singular uncountable nouns, usually referred to as singu- The noun penny has two plural forms: Tenpence may refer to one silver coin or to ten individual pennies, i.
Zero Plural Some nouns have identical forms for both singular and plural. Thus, there is no separate plural form for nouns denoting certain animals, birds and fish: Thus, it is possible to say That is a deer, a sheep, etc. This sheep looks small. All these sheep are mine. Both regular and zero plural is used with antelope, reindeer, fish, flounder, herring.
The zero plural is more common in contexts of hunt- ing We caught only a few fish , whereas the regular plural form is used to denote different individuals or species: The Plural of Compound Nouns Compounds consisting of two or more elements form the plural in various ways. The most usual one is to make the final element plural: So also: In a number of compounds the first element is made plural: When the first component is man or woman, the plural is expressed in both the first and last element: The first component is always singular in: Darts is a traditional English game which presumably developed from archery.
Some proper nouns: The United States has immense mineral wealth. There are a number of nouns ending in -s used as singular with reference to one unit, or as plural with reference to more than one: Pluralia Tantum A number of nouns in English occur in the plural only. To this group belong the following nouns. Nouns denoting articles of dress, tools and instruments consist- ing of two equal parts: These are called summation plurals and are used with a plural verb or in the construction a pair of and may be preced- ed by the plural demonstrative: These trousers are too long for me, give me another pair, please.
Is there a decent pair of scissors in this house? Miscellaneous nouns ending in -s used only with a plural verb, not with a numeral. In some cases, however, there are also forms without -s with different meaning and use: Singularia tantum Singular invariable nouns occur in the singular only.
Here belong non-count nouns, concrete gold, furniture, iron, bread, cheese, grass, oil, wine, tea, coffee, etc. It should be not- ed that virtually all non-count nouns denoting substances can be treat- ed as count nouns when used to distinguish between classes of ob- jects: There are several French wines available. Special attention should be paid to invariable nouns ending in -s used as singular only with a singular verb.
The noun news: This is very good news. Bad news travels fast. No news is good news. Names of some diseases and abnormal states of body and mind: Measles is a catching disease while rickets is not. Names of sciences and subject names in -ics: Ethics is a science of moral principles and rules of conduct.
When a word of this type is not used to refer directly to a disci- pline of study, it can take a plural verb and be preceded by a plural demonstrative: The acoustics in this room are far from perfect.
These statistics are unreliable. Names of some games: A number of collective nouns take as pronoun substitutes either singular it or plural they without change of number in the noun, i. Modern English prescriptive grammar books specifically recom- mend consistent usage within the same sentence or two. Our team plays best on its own ground singular and Our team play best on their own ground plural.
Among collective nouns of this type, there are many denoting classes, social groups or referring to a group of people having a spe- cial relationship with one another, or brought together for a particu- lar reason. Three subclasses may be distinguished here: In sentences with collective nouns, the choice between singular and plural verbs is based on a difference in attitude, i. Thus, the singular must be used in sentences like: The audience was enormous where the non- personal collectivity of the group is stressed.
The plural is more likely in sentences like: The audience were enjoying every minute of it 3. Distributive Plural. To talk about several people each doing the same thing, English prefers a plural noun for the repeated idea; plural forms are almost always used in this case with possessives: The students should hand in their essays now.
Eighty-six people lost their lives in the air-crash. Repeated Events. In descriptions of repeated single events, singular and plural nouns are both possible. When no details are given, plural nouns are more natural: She often gets headaches. When details of the time or situation are given, singular nouns are often used: To refer to the time of repeated events, both singular and plural forms are com- monly used: Note the difference: How much do you pay for Come round to my lodgings board and lodging?
They denote a number or collection of similar individuals or things regarded as a single unit. This group contains both count army, group, class, etc. Often a special group noun is used with names of certain kinds of objects: Collective nouns fall under the following sub-groups. Nouns used in the singular only denoting a number of things collected together and regarded as a single object: They take singular pronoun substi- tutes and the verb of a sentence is in the singular: The autumn foliage is beautiful.
Machinery new to the industry in Australia was introduced for cultivating land. Nouns which are singular in form though plural in meaning un- marked plurals: These nouns take plural pronoun substitutes and occur with a plural verb: These cattle are on the way to the market.
The poultry are in the yard. Vermin are harmful animals or insects. Reference to individual members of the group is made thus: With other proper names ending in -s there is vacillation both in pronunciation and spelling, but most commonly the spelling is the apostrophe only while the pronunciation is [iz]. The Use of the Genitive The genitive case is used to express a variety of ideas: In- stead, the noun is modified by an of-phrase: Note the parallel structures: Generalizations and Rules.
In generalizations and rules, singular and plural nouns are both possible: A present participle is used in a progressive verb form. Present participles are used in progressive verb forms.
Mixtures of singular and plural forms are possible: Subjects agree with their verb. The Category of Case The category of case expresses relations between objects and phe- nomena denoted by nouns in a sentence. In English the category of case has become the subject of lively controversy in linguistics. It has been discussed extensively by scho- lars, and the opinions on this subject differ widely. The widely accepted view is that English nouns have two cases. Another view is that English has more than two cases.
Thus, in accordance with the theory of prepositional cases, combinations of nouns with prepositions in certain object and attributive collocations are treated as morphological case forms, e. Obviously, on this interpretation the number of cases in English would become indefi- nitely large, which would mean abandoning a morphologically based conception of case and would lead to a confusion between morpho- logical and syntactic phenomena.
A third view is that there are no cases at all in the English noun system. This viewpoint presents the English noun as having completely lost the category of case in the course of its historical development. On this view, the form called the genitive case by force of tradition, would be, in fact, a combination of a noun with a postpositional particle. The present review will proceed from the assumption that the English noun has a two-case system: It is pronounced as [I] after any voiceless sound except a sibilant: He has a heart of gold.
She rules her family with a rod of iron. A few pairs of nouns and adjectives are used as modifiers with different meanings; while the noun simply names the material some- thing is made of, the adjective has a metaphorical meaning: The meaning and functions of the genitive case require special consideration.
The Dependent Genitive A noun in the genitive case generally precedes another noun which is its head word. This is called the dependent genitive; the actual rela- tion between the notions expressed by the two nouns largely depends on their lexical meaning.
The dependent genitive may be of two kinds. The specifying genitive denotes a particular person or thing. It has the following meanings: With proper names, however, the geni- tive case is the rule: The genitive case is preferred for the subject-verb relation, and the of-phrase for the verb-object relation: Note that for words like top, bottom, front, back, side, edge, inside, outside, beginning, middle, end, part, the of-structure is usually preferred: There are, however, a number of common exceptions: The of-structure can refer to something that is used by a person or animal; the first noun refers to the user: British and American English sometimes differ.
In older English, the of-structure was more common in this case e. However, certain linguists find this interpretation doubtful. The independent genitive is typical of expressions relating to pre- mises or establishments. It is important, how- ever, that hotel room where Andrew could only be staying not living is excluded.
Ellipsis is much more evident in sentences like: The noun in the genitive case must be both definite and personal while the head noun must have indefinite reference: The genitive case is common in headlines for reasons of brevity; it also gives prominence to the noun modified. The descriptive classifying genitive refers to a whole class of similar objects: Unlike the specifying genitive, the descriptive genitive cannot be replaced by an of-phrase.
Only the context will show what is meant; outside the context both interpretations would be equally justified.
Various pat- terns can be found in this construction. Other examples include: The group genitive is not normally acceptable after a clause, though in colloquial use one may hear examples like: Such constructions may not be fre- quent but they do occur. The Independent Genitive A noun in the genitive case may be used without a head word. This is called the independent genitive, or the genitive with ellipsis: I met a handsome student and he… I met a beautiful student and she… When there is no need to make a distinction of sex, the masculine reference pronoun is generally used.
This is the case when such nouns are used generically and neither sex is relevant: The artist, painter, poet, or musician, by his decoration, sub- lime or beautiful, satisfies the aesthetic sense; he lays be- fore you also the greater gift of himself.
However, such usage is regarded as sexist by many people and there is a tendency to avoid sex indicators in contexts of this type as marks of masculine bias in Modern English. What is new to the discourse is not necessarily new to the hear- er; he or she may already have prior knowledge to the entity in question.
Anyone who wants to write non-sexist English will need to have their wits about them. Other ways of expressing male or female reference are: Lady is used out of exaggerated polite- ness; female is used in an official, scientific or clinical context.
Gen- erally speaking, this dual class is on the increase, but the expecta- tion that a given activity is largely male or female determines the frequent use of sex markers: There is a marked preference for gender specified reference.
A mother is not likely to refer to her baby as it, but it is quite possible for somebody who is not emotionally involved with the child, especially when the sex is unknown or unimportant. The double genitive is obligatory when the speaker wishes to use several modifiers including a, this, that, these, those in the same noun phrase: Gender English makes very few gender distinctions.
The Pro- noun. Nouns, adjectives and articles have no gender distinctions, although in a small number of words the feminine suffix -ess marks a noun having female reference. The category of gender is chiefly ex- pressed in English by obligatory correlation of nouns with the third person pronouns.
These serve as specific gender classifiers of nouns. Since nouns have no grammatical gender, the choice of pronoun sub- stitutes he, she and it is based on natural distinctions of meaning. The choice between he or she, for example, is almost entirely deter- mined by sex. Thus, he refers to a man or a male animal; she — to a woman or a female animal; it — to an inanimate object or an animal which is not regarded as either male or female; the plural pronoun they is not gender specific. The pattern of pronoun substitution is determined by the lexical meaning of the noun.
Animate personal nouns may refer to males or females. Some of them are morphologically marked for gender: Steward and stewardess are being re- placed by other terms such as flight attendant. Some optional feminine forms poetess, authoress are now rare, being replaced by the dual gender forms poet, author.
A mayor can be a man or a woman; in Britain a mayoress is the wife of a male mayor. Others are morphologically unmarked for gender and have no overt marking that suggests morphological correspondence be- tween masculine and feminine: Animate personal nouns may refer to both male or female. Here belong artist, cook, doctor, enemy, fool, foreigner, friend, guest, musi- cian, neighbour, parent, person, servant, student, teacher, writer, etc.
The proud owner of a sports car may refer to it as she or perhaps he if the owner is female. With names of countries the pattern of pronoun substitution de- pends on their meaning. As geographical units they are treated as inanimate nouns: Looking at the map we see France here. It is one of the largest countries in Europe.
As political, economic or cultural units the names of countries of- ten take a feminine reference pronoun: France has been able to increase her exports by 10 per cent over the last six months.
England is proud of her poets. In sports, the teams representing countries can be referred to as personal collective nouns taking a plural pronoun substitute: France have improved their chance of winning the cup. Some words ending in -man e. As many women dislike being called chairman or spokesman, these words are now often avoided in references to women or in general reference to people of either sex. In many cases, -person is now used instead of -man: A spokesperson said that the Minister does not intend to resign.
In some cases, new words ending in -woman e. But the general tendency is to avoid what is called sexist usage and to choose words, even for men, which are not gender-marked e.
It is worth noting that though man and mankind have traditionally been used to refer to the whole of the human race, some people find this usage sexist and use terms such as people, humanity, or the human race instead. Note also the increasingly common use of synthetic fibres instead of man-made fibres. In names of higher animals animate non-personal nouns sex distinctions are chiefly made by people with a special concern — horse and cattle-breeders, veterinarians, trainers, etc.
Sex reference is expressed morphologically in lion — lioness, tiger — tigress, or lexi- cally in: When no sex distinction is made or known, the pronoun substi- tute he is more usual than she with animals like cat or horse. Generally, masculine or feminine reference pronouns are used for animals when they are thought of as having the personal qualities of human beings especially with family pets: Have you given the dog his morning meal?
It is otherwise used for animals when their sex is unknown or un- important: The dog was barking in its kennel. Names of lower animals and inanimate nouns do not differ in the patterns of pronoun substitution, e. Sex differences can, however, be indicated by a range of gender markers for any animate noun when they are felt to be relevant: This kind of personifying transposition affects not only animate but also a wide range of inanimate nouns and is regulated in everyday language by cultural and historical traditions.
Compare the use of she in refer- ence to ships, vehicles, weaker animals, etc. A personal substitute he or she with inanimate objects expresses an affectionate attitude to entities referred to: Unlike definite NPs, or definite descriptions, which tell the hear- er how to identify the object referred to, indefinite descriptions con- tain no instruction which tells the hearer which particular object is meant.
The definite article is used if the hearer is meant to identify the object which the speaker is referring to as one that is known to him or has already been mentioned. The indefinite description serves only to indi- cate the class of objects to which that object belongs. The indefinite article in its main classifying function is used to show that the speaker is characterizing a person, object or event only as a specimen of a certain class of things.
The classifying indefinite article is mostly found with predicative and appositive nouns: His father was a good soldier. The cook, a bulky man who looked as though he enjoyed his own cooking, scarcely looked around. He owes his curious name to his father, a well-read man. Predicative and appositive nouns in the plural generally take no article: They were extraordinarily nice, healthy children.
Then we were joined by two women, acquaintances of Charles and Ann. The indefinite article is also used in predicative and adverbial phrases with like and as: She looked like a boy with her head turned shamefacedly away. I was trembling like a leaf. The solid appearance of Julius in the same room was as deci- sive as a dinner bell. With plural nouns no article is used: We stood looking at each other like children. The indefinite article is used in its nominating function when the speaker wants to name an object or to state what kind of object is meant.
Then Robert Strickland struck a match and lit a cigarette. The night before, he had met an explorer, an actor, and a Ma- rine sergeant at a party. Articles in English are the most common noun determiners. Linguists recognized long ago that the article is essentially a functional element, acting to link the sentence to the situation of communication.
Most recent ac- counts treat the article in terms of its role in reference to things, people, events, etc. There are two articles in English: In addition to explaining basic terms such as 'split infinitive', 'participle', and 'adverb', entries also discuss whether to use 'may' or 'might', 'that' or 'which', and 'it's' or 'its'.
The Oxford A-Z of Grammar and Punctuation gives the reader quick and easy access to the answers to these, and many other, questions of grammar completed with clear and coherent explanations, and illustrations across a broad range of topics. Translate words in any other Android app with the Tap to Translate feature, and do it in style with any of the four colorful new themes. Also includes advanced search and language tools that have become the staple of quality language apps from MobiSystems, Inc.
Intelligent search integrates several tools to match or suggest what you are looking for: Reviews Review Policy. Version View details. Flag as inappropriate. Visit website. London, Williams and Norgate. A fine little book in the "Home University Library. York, The Macmillan Company. Clear outline, good methods. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Very clear. New dence, revised by L. The Kellner and Henry Bradley.
Kellner, L. Brief, clear, reliable, practical. Lounsbury, T. New York, Harper and Brothers, The book of a " reformer. York, Harper and Brothers, New York, Harper and Brothers. Ripman, Walter, Elements of Phonetics, Toronto, New J. Toronto, J. A very Jones, Daniel, The Pronunciation of English. Cambridge University Press, Has good phonetic transcriptions. Sweet, Henry, The Sounds of English.
Oxford, Clarendon Press, Krapp, G. New York, Oxford University Press, Has interesting phonetic texts. Gray, A. A very handy little volume of The People's Books. Discusses many difficult points.
Toronto, The Macmillan Company of Canada. Revised, A good author opposed to new terminology. Sonnenschein, E. For secondary schools ; uses the new English uniform terminology. Boston, Ginn and Company. For secondary schools; concise but useful. London, John Murray, Revised Very useful. National Joint Committee, Report on American Grammatical Nomenclature. Washington, National Education Association, Very useful in connection with this ; grammar.
Edgar, John W. Garvin, Robert S. Jenkins, J. McKenzie, Stuart Livingness to stone, Co. Arnold- Forster's History of England, on pp. John is running.
Have they succeeded The value of sport. Did the boys? Go away. The groups of words in the first line are sentences because each expresses a complete thought. Each group in line 2 is incomplete in thought, and neither, therefore, is a sentence.
Every sentence either tells something, or asks a question. The second sentence tells something about the wish of the speaker. Have you 3. Did you skate to-day? The enemy are already Have they really failed 1 This chapter may be omitted with Beware! B I well prepared classes. In written work, subject and predicate may be conveniently separated by a slanting stroke as follows The of ;: When the sentence is interrogative you rearrange the words.
Have they hurt you? EXERCISE i Classify each of the following sentences as declarative or and interrogative, and exclamatory or non-exclamatory divide each into subject and predicate.
There a beauty at the goal of life. O daughter thy God thus speaketh within thee! Talk not of wasted affection affection never was wasted. But not the less do thou aspire Light's earlier messages to preach. Old friends are the great blessings of one's later years. When you watch with me again will C. Thus Nature spake 7. How Is it ever soon thing is? There's a fountain to sport! Him shall no sunshine from the fields of azure, No drum-beat from No the wall, morning gun from the black forts' embrazure, Awaken with its call!
In the following sentences these modifiers are put within brackets. EXERCISE 3 Divide each of the following sentences into subject and predicate, underline the subject substantive and the predicate verb, and enclose within brackets modifiers of the subject and modifiers of the predicate. This is an exercise in analysis.
The King with his escort was now seen in the distance. The south-east wind frequently blows before rain. In honour of Caesar's achievements, a thanksgiving of twenty days' duration was decreed by the Roman Senate. Truth and Justice then Will down return to men, 5. Orb'd in a rainbow. Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity. In this narrow passage stands a man, looking through the palisades into the burying-place. There were also in the same place two other ways besides the one coming frofti the gate.
And some few is nothing but himself, vanities. Cold the haughty Spartan smiled. The man built the Have you helped him? Study your an lessons. A word like ball, house, lessons, or him, which names or represents the thing affected by the action expressed by the verb, is called an OBJECT.
Men 2. Boys play. He is industrious. The gun seems useless. They are friends. Each of the words, industrious, useless, and friends, not only describes the subject really the thing denoted by the subject , but helps the predicate verb to express a thought. A word used in this way to complete the verb and modify the subject 1 is called a Latin transeo, go over.
Bishop Grantly died as he had lived, peaceably, slowly, without pain and without excitement. And then 2.
Full at last our bliss and perfect is. Two the abbreviation of time and the failure of hope, will always tinge with a browner shade the evening of life. The fire, with well-dried logs supplied, Went roaring up the chimney wide; The huge hall-table's oaken face.
Scrubbed till it shone the day to grace, Bore then upon its massive board No mark to part the squire and lord. Russia became a republic a short time ago. This year appeared the comet-star in August, and shone every morning, during three months, like a sun- A. I, am still what men call young. EXERCISE 6 Write a paragraph of ten sentences about your favourite pastime, and then classify the verbs, and select the objects and complements in your sentences.
Nearly every sentence you have had so far in this chapter has consisted of one statement, or one question, containing a subject and a predicate. After Cezsar had conquered Gaul, he went to Britain. Caesar went to Britain, because the Britons had helped the Gauls. Caesar Caesar two sentences the clauses are of clause might stand alone as and each equal importance, In each of the first an independent sentence, thus Caesar went to Gaul.
He conquered the country. In each of the other sentences 3 and 4 the italicised clause is not only less important than the other, but serves like a single word to modify, or change the meaning of, the predicate of the other clause, and could not stand Such a clause is called SUBalone as a sentence. Clauses are of two kinds, principal and subordinate.
A PHRASE is a group of words in a sentence having the function of a single word, and not consisting of a subject and predicate. When I returned, I heard the news. On my return, I heard the news. I heard that he had returned home. His return home has delighted me. What he did interested me much. This He Clause.
Likewise a phrase may be used as a modifier, a subject substantive, an object, or a complement. Classify the clauses of the following sentences as principal or subordinate. Define the use of each italicised phrase. Johnston, who lives on Evelyn Avenue, has a summer near the lake. When March comes, we expect blustery weather. The boys often tell me that after seven o'clock is a splendid 1.
When the train was ready to start, the conductor shouted All aboard! How many pupils in this class know what a Sabbath-day's " 4.
That the Northern Spy is the best apple on the market is the opinion of many good judges. The late Mr. Roosevelt, who was an enthusiastic sportsman, hunted big game in Africa.
When I went to school in the country, through the fields was the shortest way home. The reeve speaks with confidence, as he knows all the ins and outs of this business.
These good-for-nothings will bring disgrace on us, if they are not checked. Some of the girls knew at once that over the fence was out. Any Canadian child can tell you that no man's land is the area between our trenches and the enemy's. You had better be what you seem. Though the old man has had many ups and downs, he has never lost faith in humanity.
We were the first that ever burst Into that silent sea. As I spoke, I tore The paper up and down, and down and up. Write a paragraph of ten lines about the in which you live, taking care that most of shall contain more than one clause each.
Classify the clauses in your paragraph.
Sentences are classified as simple, plex, 9 compound, com- and compound-complex. The boys and girls played ball together. The boys played ball, and the girls played house. The boys played, the girls danced, and the older folks 2. The boys are returning, because it is getting dark.
If they come, I shall learn what they have done. A combination of two or more sentences, at least one of which is complex. If he comes, I shall help him but, if he fails to come, I shall abandon him. You are my friend and for that reason, I know that you will help me.
This great King Alfred , in the first year of his reign, fought nine battles with the Danes. He made some treaties with them, too, by which the false Danes swore they would quit the country. They pretended to consider that they had taken a very solemn oath, but they cared little for it. Indeed, they thought nothing of breaking oaths, and treaties too, as soon as it suited their purpose. One fatal winter, in the fourth year of King Alfred's reign, they spread themselves in great numbers over the whole of England and so dispersed and routed the King's soldiers, that the King was left alone.
He was obliged to disguise himself as a common peasant, and to take refuge in the cottage of one of his cowherds, who did not know his face.
The Subject Substantive word, a phrase, or a clause. This boy has fished all day. What they wanted was very surprising. What he wants and what he gets are different things. The predicate verb of a sentence be a word or a may phrase: You You When when You have worked hard.
The following is ; an easy method of showing the analysis of a sentence: All the 2. This industrious 4. Subject and predicate are separated by a short slanting line. Subject substantive and predicate verb are underlined. Modifiers are enclosed in brackets. An object is put on the line below, and is connected with the verb by a diagonal line. A complement is put on the line above, and is connected with the verb by a diagonal line. Analyse the sentences in each of the following extracts, using the graphic method explained above.
Classify the sentences in the following extracts: Shortly Tom came upon the juvenile pariah of the village, Huckleberry Finn. Huckleberry was cordially dreaded by all the mothers of the town, because he was idle, lawless, vulgar, and bad. Besides, all their children admired him so, and delighted in his forbidden society, and wished they dared to be like him. So he played with him every time he got a chance. Huckleberry was always dressed in the cast-off clothes of full-grown men, and they were His hat was a in perennial bloom and fluttering with rags.
His coat, when he wore one, hung nearly to his heels, and had the rearward buttons far down the back. But one suspender supported his trousers. The fringed legs of his trousers dragged in the dirt when not rolled up. Huckleberry came and went at He slept on door-steps in fine weather, his own sweet will. He did not have to go to school or to church, or call any being master, or obey anybody.
He could go fishing or swimming when he chose, and could stay as long as he liked. Nobody forbade him to fight. He could sit up late, if he pleased. He was always the first boy that went barefoot in the spring. He was also the last to resume leather He never had to wash or put on clean clothes.
Everything that goes to make life precious that boy had. So thought every harassed, hampered, respectable boy in St. Arthur Wesley 1 entered the army in , as he received a commission in the 4ist regiment of foot. He held the rank of ensign for some months, and then became a lieutenant. The following anecdote proves that he was still a shy and awkward lad, and that the fair sex saw nothing to admire in him.
He was at a ball one night, and could not find a partner. As he inherited his father's taste for music, he consoled himself by sitting down near the band. When the party broke up, the other officers took home their lady friends; but young Wesley was, by common consent, left to travel with the fiddlers.
Old Lady Aldborough once reminded the Duke of the circumstance, after he had become a great man. He laughed heartily, " and she added, We should not leave you to go home with the fiddlers now. When Michael lay on his dying bed, His conscience was awakened He bethought him of his sinful deed, And he gave me a sign to come with speed ; 1 This was the early form of the Duke: The words may not again be said, That he spoke to me, on death-bed laid They would rend this Abbaye's massy nave, ; And heaps above his grave.
There are eight so-called parts of speech. This means simply that words, phrases, and clauses are grouped in eight classes according to their functions in the sentence. The parts of speech are: Nouns are divided into two classes. That that book letter. It represents is is it. He my This your book. The pronouns of one class are called PERSONAL, because they distinguish between the person speaking first person the person spoken to second person , and the person or thing spoken about third person.
The personal pronouns , are: First person Second person I, we. Third person he, she, it, they. Nouns Both designate things, nouns by naming them, pronouns by For this reason representing them without naming them.
It should be remembered that the classification of a word depends largely on its use in the sentence. The same word may, for instance, be used as a noun in one sentence and an adjective in another. The Klondyke produces much We gave him Love They is a gold watch.
Then I saw in my dream that these good companions gave to Christian a loaf of bread, a bottle of wine, and a cluster of raisins. Three years she grew in sun and shower, Then Nature said, " A lovelier flower On earth was never sown 3. Light thickens, and the crow Makes wing to the rooky wood Good things of day begin to droop and drowse, Whiles night's black agents to their preys do rouse. Thou marvell'st at my words but hold thee still Things bad begun make strong themselves by ill.
So, prithee, go with me. The details of their inflection will be given in the next two chapters. Direct object of a verb or a preposition. Indirect object of a verb. Who had told his friend the story? Roy's dog has bitten both me and him.
Explain the case of each of the italicised words in sentences 2 and 3. In the next chapter, you will learn that the names nominative case, accusative case, etc. While nouns have four cases, they have only two case-forms, a common case-form for the nominative, accusative, and dative cases, and a genitive case-form.
I Acc. We are men now we possess men's rights. Him who cares to give me the lie, I shall be prepared to meet 1. But while 4. Though the mist comes up from the marshes grey, this softer hrt their bliss supplies, It gives their follies also And covers the earth in its phantom fold, Though it shrouds for a moment the golden day, There must come a time when it back is rolled; And then thou wilt see that the day so dull in its heart as it had of yore, the world as ever with bliss is full, nought is changed from the scene before.
Has the glow That That R. When Ceres heard this, she S. But that I am forbid the secrets of my prison-house, could a tale unfold, whose lightest word To I tell Would harrow up thy soul, freeze thy young blood.
The mortal relics of Lord Byron, the illustrious poet, which have been just brought from Greece," said the dapper-looking individual.
EXERCISE 14 Write a paragraph of about ten lines about what you would like to do to-morrow, and then select from your paragraph all subject substantives, direct objects of verbs, indirect objects, and words in the genitive case. A declaration, or ask a question. You have already learned that verbs are classified according to their meaning, as follows: We reward our brave men. Our men are brave. Our brave men fought well. Verbs are inflected changed in form for tense, person, distinctions are shown number and mood.
Sometimes these by means of verb phrases. TENSE indicates time, present, past, and future. Name the tense of each italicised verb. Name the case of each italicised substantive.
Merrily the feast I'll make ; To-day I'll brew, to-morrow bake Merrily I'll dance and sing, ; For next day will a stranger bring.
Hobson Newcome was a better man of business than his more solemn and stately brother, at whom he laughed in his and he said rightly, that a gentleman had to get jocular way up very early in the morning who wanted to take him in. The Scots are a bold hardy race, and delight much in war. When they invaded England, they were all usually on horseback they brought no carriages and carried no provisions. Under the flap of his saddle each man had a broad plate of metal and behind his saddle a little bag of oatmeal.
So that when occasion needed, he made cakes of the oatmeal, and baked them upon the plates. They do me wrong, and I will not endure it Who are they that complain unto the King That I, forsooth, am stern and love them not?
If Father forgive your trespasses. An stantive. Moreover, the addition of the adjective happy changes the meaning of the whole subject, and indeed of the whole sentence.
These pictures, beautiful and costly, belong to the National Gallery. Many pictures in the National Gallery are beautiful and costly. Notice the positions of the adjectives in these sentences. An adjective, or another adverb. The man drove very furiously. The driving of the man was very Explain the function use of furious. I pleasure, Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay, Might stop a hole to keep the wind away. Soon the assembly, in a circle ranged, each look was changed Stood silent round the shrine To sudden veneration women meek Beckon'd their sons to silence.
Near yonder copse, where once the garden smiled, And still where many a garden-flower grows wild, There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose, ; ; 5. The village preacher's A man he was to all And modest mansion rose, the country dear, pounds a year. Behold her, single in the field, Yon solitary Highland lass Reaping and singing to herself 7. Canada, rich as she is in natural resources, has been found! For three whole days across the sky, In sullen packs that loomed and broke, With flying fringes dim as smoke, The columns of the rain went by.
The crow doth When neither sing as sweetly as the lark, is attended. The road now became The lilacs smell The flag came The moon does not shine 5. Lloyd George 6. The 1. This made my friend He did his work well, as 9. His visit He was up Foch has gone. The substantive position is which immediately follows the preand is in the called the object of the preposition, accusative case.
Have you received letters from your friends? The noun friends is the object of the preposition from, and is in the accusative case. A words, phrases, or clauses but not to form phrases. Cartier and Champlain were great explorers.
Love of right and hatred of wrong were his great virtues. What he did and what he tried to do are known to all. An interjection is equivalent to a whole sentence, and has no grammatical connection with the other words in the sentence. Faith they have failed in their attempt. Have they come Do you? Explain the function of each preposition and conjunction.
Maitre Jean could not bear the man, but Catherine, his would keep for him a choice morsel of bacon, and answer her husband, who seemed put out about it " I have my seat in church, and I wish to have my seat in Heaven and you, too, will be glad to sit by my side in the i. And And ; Which ne'er might be repeated. Let us go over the 4. The boy told his hills he had done.
He had 5. Our friend Bert had been away from home, but he hurried back to Fullarton for the wedding. EXERCISE 20 each blank with a preposition or a conjunction, and then, in connection with the word you have supplied, tell what part of speech it is, and explain its function. Joe ran the stairs, he never walked he Fill could run. Russians have died hunger. All roads lead Rome.
He left his children nothing a good name. Five them were wise, five them were Many I foolish. Toronto 9. Never trouble trouble The storm was so severe 1 1 Let us dispense. This house The 6. It's easy enough to be pleasant, life flows along a song. It ceased; still the sails made on soil his troubles A pleasant noise noon. These cadets march These cadets march Up! Phrases as well as words are classified as parts of speech. This ne'er-do-well is lazy. The Duke of Richmond has come.
Pronouns We admire each other. They praise one another. Verb We shall have done it. He would have come, if he had known the hour.
The people of this city will help the men of the Adjectives army. Our friends work in the city, but we work on the Adverb farm. Your friend came by way of London. Preposition He did it in order that they might be free.
Conjunction Upon my word! Interjection Nouns: Subordinate adjectives, a Clauses are as classified substantives, and adverbs. What he did interests me very much. I know that our friends have come. I shall give what he says object. Direct object of attention. What is your opinion of what they propose object of preposition. Direct one that modifies a substantive.