PDF | This paper discusses the concept of sustainable architecture, seeking to discuss more accurately the theme of recycling, optimization and lifecycle of. PDF | 50 minutes read | In recent years, sustainability concept has become The Concept of Green Architecture, also known as “sustainable. PDF | The future is largely unknown. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the present generations to use the available resources in a way that.
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Introduction. 2 Strategies for Sustainable Architecture. Anyone involved in building design, procurement or maintenance in recent years will. Sustainable Architecture and Building Design (SABD) meteolille.info research/BEER/meteolille.info Sustainable Architecture What is Sustainable. Introduction. ▫ What is sustainable architecture? ▫ Building materials and technologies. ▫ Examples of sustainable architecture in. Italy and the Netherlands .
June 20, May, The Ullrich files were removed. June, NewAirport files moved over to a new directory labeled AustinAirport. Send Email or All Rights Reserved. Box , Austin, TX http: If you need further assistance please let us know - email webmaster defra. Please provide full details on the http: Page last modified: This generates millions of tonnes of greenhouse gases, toxic air emissions, water pollutants, and solid wastes. No other sector has a greater impact on the global environment or faces a greater obligation to improve its environmental performance.
With so much of the world's resources consumed in the building sector, learning how to build with the environment in mind will make a big difference for the global environment. Energy 3. Water 4. Landscape 5. Materials 6. Waste 7. Construction Practices 8. Human Health and Comfort Resources: Indoor Environmental Quality 9.
Please contact us. Preserving and creating the built environment for sustainable development. Although these guidelines focus on the durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues of building design, they should be considered as part of a comprehensive approach to preserving and creating the built environment for sustainable development.
This is the main objective which underpins the guidelines. Buildings that are durable, adaptable and contribute to the energy conservation have a positive impact on environmental, social and economic systems, and thus contribute to more sustainable development.
Aim, approach and target audience Top of Page The aim of these guidelines is to provide advice on a strategic approach to resolving the conflicts among durability, adaptability and energy conservation requirements in building design.
The guidelines are an outcome of a research project which focused on identifying such conflicts in higher education buildings. However, they are applicable to other types of buildings as well. It is not possible to provide prescriptive guidelines for the reconciliation of the conflicts among the durability, adaptability and energy conservation requirements because of the combination of variable factors in building design such as buildings function s initial and future , required service life, required level of adaptability and energy requirements.
Prescriptive guidelines may carry too many qualifications and limitations which are not applicable in all cases. Understanding the principles behind the conflicts in building design allows designers to apply their own ideas in solving the problem. Defining durability, adaptability and energy conservation Top of Page Defining durability, adaptability and energy conservation Durability is defined as service life, i.
Adaptability of buildings, as defined in this research project, comprises the following: In the construction industry, energy is used for the extraction and manufacture of building materials and components, their transportation to the building site, the construction process, the running of building, maintenance, adaptations, deconstruction and disposal. Energy conservation of buildings pertains to all these phases of building life. Teamwork approach Top of Page It has often been emphasised that an integrated team design approach is crucial for a good building design.
Clients, architects, structural and services engineers, and quantity surveyors need to work together from the start of a project on the development of design strategies and the assessment of whole life costs. Early involvement of contractors contributes to the examination of buildability and costs.
Experienced building managers can draw attention to common faults in building design, maintenance problems, and difficulties or advantages in management and operation of different services systems. Design team members need to agree that, throughout the design process from inception to detailed design , they will try to identify the conflicts between the design strategies and solutions, and aim to resolve them.
Consideration of whole life cycle impact of buildings Top of Page The main principle of building design for sustainable development is to consider the impact of buildings on the natural, social and economic systems throughout their life cycle. The main consequence of this approach to building design is that buildings should not be designed as expendable and disposable products, but that the use of natural, social and economic resources invested in their creation should be maximised and any negative impacts minimised.
Opportunities for achieving this goal arise from the moment when the decision is made whether to re-use an existing building or to build a new one, through all stages of building design, procurement, construction, use operation, maintenance, adaptations , dismantling, recycling and disposal.
This approach needs to be adopted by both the clients and design team. The objective of the design philosophy is to emphasise that the main principles and objectives of a building design should be harmonised. This means that in the pursuit of energy conservation, durability, adaptability or cost effectiveness, it is necessary to remember the Vitruvian principles of commodity, firmness and delight.
Buildings that are functional and comfortable, durable and look well have always been appreciated and rarely became obsolete. The main objective of building design should be to provide a building which meets the requirements for functionality, durability, adaptability, energy conservation, cost-effectiveness and aesthetics in a balanced way.
This means that the pursuit of one goal should not compromise the possibilities of achieving the other goals of the building design.
Defining functional requirements, and design objectives and targets Top of Page design brief Both in adapting an existing building and designing a new one, building function, required service life, required level of adaptability, and energy requirements, which include the targets for energy conservation, need to be defined at the design brief stage. Together with the available budget, these achievement goals and performance targets outline the main design objectives and constraints.
Re-using an existing building or building a new one Top of Page feasibility studies When the functional requirements, design objectives and targets are defined, clients and designers need to consider whether to adapt an existing building or build a new one.
This is the first step towards the energy conservation and preservation of natural resources. Existing buildings need to be examined regarding the following issues: An assessment of the environmental impact of the new building will enable planners to decide whether the new use is compatible with the existing environment. Architects, structural and services engineers will examine and assess the above listed issues.
If the assessment shows that the existing building is durable, adaptable, and contributes to energy conservation, then it should be re-used. However, financial considerations will have a significant role if some of the listed requirements are not met.
Since the costs will be higher if the requirements of new use cannot be easily met, it is advisable to look for an existing building with design features which meet most of the requirements of the new use. In order to avoid early obsolescence, one of the main strategies for achieving the durability of buildings is to design adaptable buildings. Apart from designing for the adaptability of the whole building, design for re-use means that building elements and components should be designed for re-use in the same or other buildings.
This goal also contributes to energy conservation and has a positive impact on the preservation of natural resources. Energy used throughout the building life comprises the embodied energy of building materials and components, energy used in the construction process, during the lifetime of the building, and for dismantling. Since the amount of energy used during the building life still represents the major part of the total energy used by buildings, energy efficiency of buildings during their lifetime and the type of energy sources non-renewable or renewable play the most important role in the total energy conservation and environmental impact of energy.
The main strategic goal regarding energy conservation is to minimise the use of fossil energy and maximise the use of renewable energy resources, daylighting and natural ventilation. Conceptual design - main spatial, structural and energy conservation Top of Page strategies Main principles of the design strategy are first expressed in the conceptual design which outlines spatial, structural and environmental concepts of the building design.
At this stage designers have the first opportunity to propose design strategies and examine their compatibility. In conceptual design, the following issues need to be examined with regard to the re-use durability and adaptability and energy conservation of buildings: Spatial issues: Planning of the layout means placing the activities in particular positions in a building whilst taking into account interrelationship of the activities, main communication routes and environmental requirements for specific activities.
Planning for adaptability of the layout means that activities and their relationship may change, as well as the complete use of building. Thus, the initial layout needs to be considered as only one of various possible layouts within a building plan. This can be achieved by the following: Both the plan surface and floor-to-floor height need to be considered. The plan depth and.. The plant should be spacious and easily accessible for both people and.. If possible, it should be located at the ground level or in a separate building.
However, http: Structural issues: Wide structural spans will allow a flexible layout, but then the structure needs to be robust and to be designed for extra loads. Robust structure is also designed to cope with known hazards considering both risk and consequence. It is not unduly sensitive to marginal departures from the design assumptions, local defects or movement and environmental change.
The structure should not deflect or vibrate to an extent that alarms the occupants or disturbs their function. Energy conservation issues. Maximising daylighting, natural ventilation and use of renewable resources. This is achieved by avoiding the need for air-conditioning through the use of shallow plans which permit natural ventilation and daylighting.
Solar gains in summer are avoided by shading and correct orientation. Passive solar gains, particularly for ventilation preheat, and night ventilation for cooling, are also considered. Thermal mass of the structure or building envelope as regulator of thermal behaviour of a building. While a heavyweight building does not have advantages over a lightweight building with good insulation during the warming up period, thermal mass brings an energy benefit in its effects on the usefulness of solar and casual gains.
This means that lightweight buildings will overheat quickly, while heavyweight buildings are able to absorb the sudden input of solar gain. The energy stored in heavyweight walls helps delay a demand for heating as the outside temperature drops, which has an important role in minimising temperature swings in unheated spaces such as conservatoires and atria.
In hot weather, the thermal mass can be cooled by the fall of night, providing the building is not occupied by night. Design team will consider how building thermal mass can contribute to the energy conservation. Flexibility and capacity of services.
If the initial building use requires complex and 'intelligent' services, they need to be flexible. Flexibility of the layout also requires flexible services which have extra capacity, or the possibility of increasing the capacity.
Flexibility of electrical, heating and cooling services is particularly important in order to provide adequate environmental conditions and servicing of the equipment.
Concerning the HVAC systems, this means that they may be decentralised to allow the differential use in the building. Independence of services in relation to the building fabric. The design and ducting of services should aim to achieve independence in relation to the building fabric to allow ease of change and maintenance, and avoid changes or damage to the building fabric. Design of the building envelope for durability, adaptability and energy Top of Page conservation In the process of defining main spatial, structural and services parameters, the building envelope also needs to be considered.
Design of a building envelope to be durable, adaptable and which will http: Apart from robustness, good detailing.. For example, water.. This can be prevented by good.. Special care is needed in designing the joints between building.. In addition, building components which have mechanical parts for example,.. Poor exterior appearance of a building may decrease the building value and.. Modular elements which allow changing of.. Extensions to the building may be easier if the building envelope or..
Adequate U-values, shading against.. Identifying conflicts between the strategies at the stage of conceptual Top of Page design The design team should aim to identify any conflicts between the proposed strategies and means for achieving them. Apart from the conflicts which may arise among durability, adaptability and energy conservation issues, possible effects of the proposed strategies on functionality, appearance etc. If conflicts are identified, designers should aim to propose design solutions which meet the strategic requirements in a balanced way.
Creating a building performance profile as a guide to a detailed design Top of Page When the main strategies have been agreed in the conceptual design, detailed performance requirements can be defined in the form of a building performance profile.
The DAEC Tool is based on a method which can be used to define a performance profile for a building in relation to durability, adaptability and energy conservation. Performance requirements should be defined in consultation with the client and revised when the whole life costs are provided. Durability performance profile. Durability performance profile will define the required service life of all building elements and components.
For example, the performance profile of higher education buildings examined the following building elements and components: The list may be amended for other building types.
Adaptability performance profile http: Adaptability performance profile will define the requirements for building design features which affect adaptability.
The adaptability profile needs to be defined in relation to the required level of adaptability. With regard to the adaptability of higher education buildings the following spatial, structural and services design features, and design features that affect ease of use of the spaces by occupants with different physical abilities were assessed: The list of building design features which need to be assessed may be amended for other building types. Energy conservation performance profile.
Energy conservation performance profile defines requirements for the building design features that affect energy conservation, and performance targets related to energy consumption and the environmental impact of energy-in-use. For example, the following design features and environmental performance targets were examined with regard to higher education buildings: The above list may be amended, if needed, for other building types.
Detailed design Top of Page The detailed design will follow the requirements defined in the performance profile. It will consider the following issues with regard to the durability, adaptability and energy conservation: Durability issues.
Specifying for durability. Specification of building materials, components and finishes which are suitable for the environmental conditions and can be protected from damaging agents in soil, water and air, and which meet or exceed required service life. These specifications will also be based on the environmental impact of building materials and components.
Designing for buildability. A design needs to be readily buildable and not dependent upon perfect workmanship and compliance with the specification. Advice on good workmanship and quality control. Good workmanship on site and the assembly of complex components off site will contribute to the durability of buildings.
The level of quality assurance selected throughout the whole process should ensure satisfactory reliability. Specifications can include this advice, especially regarding new and untested design solutions. A design identifies and provides good access for all items requiring maintenance and inspection. It should incorporate early warning signs of serious defects.
It should allow easy maintenance of building elements and finishes. Adaptability issues. Design for dismantling and re-use. A detailed design of building elements and components should aim to provide the possibility of easy dismantling. Design for accessibility and ease of use by all occupant. A detailed design of access routes, communications, services, etc.
Energy conservation issues http: Avoiding conflicts between different environmental requirements. The strategies for low energy buildings comprise careful consideration of building design and management in other to avoid the conflicts between the means for achieving natural lighting, ventilation, heating and cooling. This implies an understanding of different environmental conditions which occur in buildings during 24 hours and in different seasons, and how the strategies for achieving desired environmental conditions may come into conflict.
There is a range of strategic Baker, and more detailed technical guides, e. Adequate and energy efficient services. Services engineers will consider the use of condensing boilers, heat recovery and heat pumps reduce the heating demand, low energy light sources to reduce electricity demand, and combined heat and power CHP for larger buildings. Where mechanical cooling is unavoidable, they will minimise the load by adopting passive means e.
Modelling for energy conservation. A range of tools are helpful in planning and designing for energy conservation, and in predicting the energy consumption of buildings. Some of the available tools are listed below: Design for manageability and occupant control. Designers should aim to provide simple interfaces for operation of building environmental systems. Commissioning, handover and feedback Top of Page Since many modern buildings are very complex, and may comprise 'intelligent' systems or specific operation regimes to benefit from its design features, it is necessary to provide the documentation with operating and maintenance manuals for building managers.
Post-occupancy surveys should become a http: References Burns, J. Glasgow, pp. Chapman, J. Preiser, W.
New York, pp. Rodin, J. Rookwood, R. London Schlaich, J. Stillman, J. Cole, R. Volume 1, Overview, April. Natural Resources Canada Ottawa, Canada.
Clements-Croome, T. Crawley, D. Dekker, K. Grammenos, F. Buildings and the Environment, June , Paris, Vol. Kohler, N. Vischer, J. Toward a More Humane Architecture, http: Top of Page http: The site is maintained by the Florida Design Initiative and is organized around the individual technical guidelines that will comprise the complete set of Guidelines for Total Building Commissioning.
Guideline Modules 1. General Principles and Procedures 2. Mechanical and Energy Systems 3. Structural Systems 4. Exterior Envelope Systems 5. Roofing Systems 6. Interior Systems 7. Elevator Systems 8. Plumbing Systems 9. Lighting Systems Electrical Systems Fire Protection Systems Telecommunications Systems http: DDC upcoming and future projects.
In October , DDC published a companion piece for infrastructure, the High Performance Infrastructure Guidelines, one of the first of its kind in the world. As of December , about 30 pilot projects incorporating sustainable strategies have been built or are in design or construction under the Children's Center management of DDC.
Both Guidelines and the Implementation piece were made possible through the generous funding and guidance provided by the Design Trust for Public Space.
Four of the projects are completed, with six now in construction, 16 in design and five in pre-design. Energy saving strategies adopted by most of these projects include: Nearly all projects use a palette of low-toxicity, renewable, Ultra-Low Sulfur and high-recycled content materials, such as newsprint insulation, plastic toilet partitions, fly-ash Diesel Manual PDF concrete, bamboo, and linoleum or rubber flooring. Several projects have adopted more innovative strategies such as geothermal heating and cooling, photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, planted roofs, porous paving and gray-water recycling systems.
Fifteen projects, three of which are scheduled to open in , are targeting various ratings, from certified to platinum, as defined by the U. One of those projects, the Queens Botanical Garden Administration Building, is expected to receive a platinum rating -- the highest level -- achieved to date by just a handful of buildings worldwide.
All new DDC projects are now required to start with an environmental meeting, to use construction materials with recycled content and low toxicity, and to develop a waste management plan, among other measures. Many new projects will be required to achieve rigorous levels of sustainability as per Local Law 86 for The powerpoints from these training sessions are posted here. The Guidelines are being supplemented with a series on in-depth manuals to inform the high performance process.
Newly completed and posted on this Website are Local Law Since sustainable design is such a rapidly evolving technical discipline, by locating this information on the Web in downloadable format, the Office of Sustainable Design OSD seeks to ease the transition to sustainable building at DDC.
The resources are organized in four categories: The Specifications section includes recommended specification language on topics such as environmentally preferable materials and construction and demolition waste management. Written as performance specifications in Microsoft Word, they are easy to download and incorporate into a project specification.
University Ave. These materials may be freely copied for educational purposes. Economy of Resources Life Cycle Design Humane Design Income vs. Traditionally, we measure Gross National Product GNP , which favors any economic activities and production, regardless of their true benefits and effect on long-term societal well-being. Even consumption, demolition, and waste that require further production are credited to a higher GNP.
In industrialized, capitalistic societies, consumption is regarded as a virtue. However, realizing the environmental threats, real or potential, to the quality of life, environmental movements have begun in virtually all sectors of industrialized countries, including business, manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, and architecture. Researchers are developing and refining methods of analyzing the true cost of an economic activity over its entire life cycle. Developing countries tend to model their economic infra- structure after those of their industrialized counterparts.
Today, economic activities in developing countries around the world, Pacific Rim countries in particular, are far more noticeable than two or three decades ago, and their share of the world economy is increasing. All quantitative economic indices such as per capita income, GNP, amount of foreign trade, and the amount of building construction indicate that their economies are strong and growing rapidly.
In the United States alone, billions of dollars have been spent cleaning up an environment subjected to uncontrolled development. The ecological havoc created by the former Soviet Union is only now beginning to be fully understood. Developing countries would do well to learn from these situations, not emulate them.
Resource Consumption and Environmental Pollution Resource consumption and economic status have a strong correlation. As the income level of a society increases, so does its resource consumption. This is true for societies of virtually any size, be they families, cities, or entire countries.
As USA shown in Figure 1, industrial countries with higher incomes consume more energy per capita than developing countries. This implies that it is plausible for a society to N Korea France Italy establish resource-efficient social and economic infrastructures Korea while raising its economic status.
Figure 1: Correlations between The correlation between per-capita income and per-capita per-capita incomes and per- water consumption reveals a similar pattern see Figure 2 , capita energy consumption as does the emission of environmental pollutants to the levels of selected industrialized and developing countries.
Island Press, Oxford University Press, Mexico France Germany This definition of sustainability does not specify the ethical UK roles of humans for their everlasting existence on the planet. Korea It also fails to embrace the value of all other constituents 0 participating in the global ecosystem.
Correlations between a proper terminology to describe the human need. It is predicted that the pattern of architectural resource USA intensity the ratio of per-capita architectural resource Per Capita Pollutant Production 20 consumption to per-capita income will generally follow the Canada same patterns as shown in Figure 1, 2, and 3.
For a household, the Brazil growth of incomes will lead to a desire for a larger house 10 Italy France Japan with more expensive building materials, furnishings and home appliances; more comfortable thermal conditions in Korea interior spaces; and a larger garden or yard.
At the early stage, site development and Figure 3: Correlations between construction influence indigenous ecological characteristics. Herman Daly, itself disrupt the local ecology. The procurement and manu- Steady-State Economics Washington: Once Island Press, For instance, the energy and water used by its inhabitants produce toxic gases and sewage; the process of extracting, refining, and transporting all the resources used in building operation and maintenance also have numerous effects on the environment.
This in turn increases the combined impact of architecture on the global ecosystem, which is made up of inorganic elements, living organisms, and humans. The goal of sustainable design is to find architectural solutions that guarantee the well-being and coexistence of these three constituent groups. The three levels of the framework Principles, Strategies, and Methods correspond to the three objectives of architectural environmental education: The overall conceptual diagram for sustainable design is shown in Figure 4.
We propose three principles of sustainability in architecture. Economy of Resources is concerned with the reduction, reuse, and recycling of the natural resources that are input to a building.
Life Cycle Design provides a methodology for analyzing the building process and its impact on the environ- ment. Humane Design focuses on the interactions between humans and the natural world. These principles can provide a broad awareness of the environmental impact, both local and global, of architectural consumption. Figure 4: This allows them to further disaggregate and analyze specific methods architects can apply to reduce the environmental impact of the buildings they design.
Figure 5: Economy of Resources By economizing resources, the architect reduces the use of nonrenewable resources in the construction and operation of buildings. There is a continuous flow of resources, natural and manufactured, in and out of a building. When examining a building, consider two streams of resource flow see Figure 5. Upstream, resources flow into the building as input to the building ecosystem.
Downstream, resources flow out of the building as output from the building ecosystem. In a long run, any resources entered into a building ecosystem will eventually come out from it. This is the law of resource flow conservation. For a given resource, its forms before entry to a building and after exit will be different.
This transformation from input to output is caused by the many mechanical processes or human interventions rendered to the resources during their use in buildings. The three strategies for the economy of resources principle are energy conservation, water conservation, and material conservation. Each focuses on a particular resource necessary for building construction and operation.
Energy Conservation After construction, a building requires a constant flow of energy input during its operation. The environmental impacts of energy consumption by buildings occur primarily away from the building site, through mining or harvesting energy sources and generating power.
The energy consumed by a building in the process of heating, cooling, lighting, and equipment operation cannot be recovered.
The type, location, and magnitude of environmental impacts of energy consumptions in buildings differ depending on the type of energy delivered. Nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, for which there is currently no permanent management solution.
Hydropower plants each require a dam and a reservoir which can hold a large body of water; construction of dams results in discontinuance of river ecosystems and the loss of habitats for animals and plants. Water Conservation A building requires a large quantity of water for the purposes of drinking, cooking, washing and cleaning, flushing toilets, irrigating plants, etc.. All of this water requires treatments and delivery, which consume energy.
Costa Rica. New Haven. Indicadores de sostenibilidad: Third Quarter Sustainable development requires that improvements in economic and social living conditions accord with the long-term process of securing the natural foundations of life G1 ". Sustainability Nachhaltigkeit as postulated in Germany "requires the inextricable linkage of ecology. Yale University Press.
Sustainable development. Kenyan Proverb. It uses all resources efficiently both in an environmental and economic sense. Steady state economics: By a definition.
Creation of new markets and opportunities for sales growth Cost reduction through efficiency improvements and reduced energy and raw material inputs Creation of additional added value Environmental dimensions of sustainability Reduced waste.
Sustainable building involves considering the entire life cycle of buildings. Sustainably designed buildings aim to lessen their impact on our environment through energy and resource efficiency. It includes the following principles: Construction projects typically consume large amounts of materials.
Both the environmental initiatives of the construction sector and the demands of users are key factors in the market. The Earth Pledge www. Quality issues have hardly played a significant role. Governments will be able to give a considerable impulse to sustainable buildings by encouraging these developments.
In the past. Community Issues. Transport and utilities. Inner cities. Internal environment. Local and site. All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that materials and building systems do not emit toxic substances and gasses into the interior atmosphere. Additional measures are to be taken to clean and revitalize interior air with filtration and plantings.
Energy Efficiency. Building stock value. All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that the building's use of energy is minimal. External environment. Longevity depends much on form. That is. Healthful Interior Environment. Department for Environment. Climate change. Wildlife Green Code for Architecture [From: Greening Government: Towards More Sustainable Construction: Green Guide for Managers on the Government Estate.
All possible measures are to be taken to use building materials and products that minimize destruction of the global environment. Environmental Form. Ecologically Benign Materials. Measures are to be taken to "heal" and augment the ecology of the site. All possible measures are to be taken to achieve an efficient. Finished buildings shall be well built. Measures are to be taken to relate the form of building to a harmonious relationship between the inhabitants and nature.
The Hannover Principles Living buildings will: Harvest all their own water and energy needs on site. Other materials and products are to be considered based on the toxic waste out put of production. This movement aims to create environmentally friendly. BNIM Architects 2. Symbolic relationships with appropriate history. Wood is to be selected based on non destructive forestry practices. Operate pollution-free and generate no wastes that aren't useful for some other process in the building or immediate environment.
Be beautiful and inspire us to dream. Ecological Building A movement in contemporary architecture. Accomodations are to be made for recycling and energy efficiency. This entails passively and actively harnessing solar energy and using materials which. Jason F. Good Design. Be adapted specifically to site and climate and evolve as conditions change. Be comprise of integrated systems that maximize efficiency and comfort.
Improve the health and diversity of the local ecosystem rather than degrade it. Economy 1. All possible measures are to be taken to relate the form and plan of the design to the site. Promote the health and well-being of all inhabitants. Wind energy generator Water Pure water.
Waste water condenser water. Cool storage Passive solar absorber Groundwater Heat exchanger elements Night cooling by outside air. Cold storage in building. Combined heat and power CHP. Cold energy. Public supply drinking. Heat energy Passive solar energy Heat buffer Water surfaces Lake. Cold energy River. Pump water or greywater. Boiler gas. Emergency generator. Absorption chiller. Solar energy.
Tandem system. Flue gas heat exchanger Electrical energy Mains supply. District heating. Solar thermal system. Heat pumps. Electrically driven chiller. Heat storage Storage masses. Tandem systems Indirect. Cold energy Building Technology Cooling energy Direct. Energy content Storage masses Stack effect Planted surfaces.
Heat energy. Commercial power supply utilities Self supply. Geothermal cooling Evaporative cooling. Wind force Absorber surface.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Sustainable architecture. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Arundathi Pinky , architect Follow. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Download eBooks , GET at http: Thanks for sharing. Dhananjay Marda , Sahil Kapoor , Student at Dr.