A DOLL'S HOUSE. " HENRJK IBSEN. TRdNSUTED nr meteolille.info dRCIlER. • ~01tb ",n. T. FISHER UNwn;. 26 PATERNOSTER SQUA RE. The Project Gutenberg EBook of A Doll's House, by Henrik Ibsen This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions. A room, comfortably and tastefully, but not expensively, furnished. In the back, on the right, a door leads to the hall; on the left another door leads to HELMER's.
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A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen is a publication of the Pennsylvania State University. This Portable. Document file is furnished free and without any charge of any. A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen. Adobe PDF icon. Download this document as a. pdf: File size: MB What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read. HENRIK IBSEN. 7. A DOLLʼS HOUSE CHARACTERS. A DOLLʼS HOUSE THEMES. THEATRICAL CONTEXT. HISTORICAL & SOCIAL CONTEXT.
Here we see woman as an object of experiment, which is reformed and remade by man. As Shaw is the disciple of Ibsen, so we find a kind of relevance of subject matter and issues discussed by both them in their plays respectively though positions of characters and circumstances under which they move are totally different from each other. Nora is treated as a lifeless object by her husband Torvald , who assumes her sole purpose of existence is to entertain him and family.
Nora gets self realization after series of events affecting the ways her husband changes with accordance to times, in good circumstances he loves her and in harsh time he just disgusts her presence.
Feminist movement though started before the Victorian era, during French revolution as a result of social change.
Industrial revolution changed the living conditions drastically and the economic depression caused by world wars compelled women to become independent to support their families economically. It was at that time when women started to fight for political, economical and social equalization because they earned far less than men. Until then, economically as well as socially, marriage was the safest solution for a woman.
Until then they were supposed to give birth to children, raise them and be there for their husbands. Such stereotyped roles and social standards were challenged in coming generations with much more developed ideas of freedom and independence from patriarchy. With passage of time, feminism evolved and it started capturing all fields of life related with women. In 20th century feminism is discussed in three waves, with improvised ideas each time.
Feminism is defined as movement started to fight for the equal opportunities and rights for women as men have. Feminists have raised different points and issues where women are marginalized by men which we have discussed in next pages. Her husband, Torvald Helmer treats her something precious, a delicate object but not an alive being with brain.
In the beginning of play we see Torvald calling her with pet names entertaining animal Imagery like skylark. Though these names are called out of love seemingly but imagery associated with these animals is somewhat entertaining and pleasurable object which takes out all the characteristics of being brainy and thoughtful cell regarding Nora as a doll with no feelings and emotions.
In poor words Nora is the desired-object for her husband not a human being. Torvald holds authoritative position dictating her always to set her life patterns. To objectify the Male dominancy Ibsen depicts Torvald as head of house resting all powers in his hand. Shaw also has shown men something above women. Higgins is the phonetics scientist who meets Eliza accidently in St. Here interesting point is to notice that difference between human being is not measured on the bases of virtues and intellect but social belongings.
Professor Higgins is seen molding clay into difference shapes until he gets desired shaped of the toy. Some of critics relate Higgins with sculptor Pygmalion, whose creation sculpture of Galatea came to life with his love, same happens with Higgins who raises a lower class flower girl to the status of a lady of upper strata of England with fine speech in order to prove his scientific theories of speech and social functions of language.
He commands Eliza to perform like a doll or a robot. Pickering, friend of Higgins, is no different from Higgins in treating Eliza as a toy, though he is far more polite and considerate to her than is Higgins.
Patriarchy gave space to objectification of women to settle down in society despising class difference. The typical example is in Act 2 when Eliza visits Higgins to talk about her lessons of phonetics; Higgins' attitude to Eliza is very rude and abusive. Linde, nanny etc. On the other hand, same image of women in presented by Shaw but setting and environment is different.
When he is unable to do so they look for someone else.
In both cases clearly see the dominancy of men over women to survive in the society. Torvald addresses Nora as silly women and little brainscattred. On other hand, Professor Higgins treats Eliza poorly as something without sense and rational instinct.
It relates a negative connotation with women as weak and brainless creatures. Nora and Eliza can be both examined in garb of ideal feminine figures in their position in terms of good girls or bad girls. Idealizing good women as beautiful figures with polite speech and submissive as fulfilling their duties towards family and society.
Pearce house keeper to give a bath to Eliza and burn all her old cloths to change her appearance and he uses abusive and harsh words even threatens Eliza for physical torture to make her mind her own retaliating tones and protests.
This struggle to maintain her own identity is not appreciable according to Professor Higgins in social context of gender programming. Remember that you are a human being with a soul and the divine gift of articulate speech: Nora is something pleasurable and objects of entertainment for Helmer.
He fancies her presence while maintaining her attractive looks. For example he asks her to wear fancy dresses, to sing for him and dance for him. Traditional gender roles are always been a part of social and private domains of human life especially women have been chained in it. Duessa is ide tified ith e il, dark a d 1 bad moral values while Una stands for truth, purity, chastity and faith.
As 20th century has been identified with change so we see it in both plays. She borrows money for her ill husband out of love and care. But that was the whole point, to do it without him finding out!
But later we see that her brave act later becomes punishment for her as Torvald only cares for social status and reputation. She hides this truth from Torvald only because she never gets enough courage to speak in front from him. It is again a symbol of patriarchal society where women are afraid to speak truth only to avoid the cruel consequences.
Even he gets angry and calls Nora a criminal and uses harsh language against her. Eliza goes to Higgins only because she is ready to change her speech and appearance to get more money and change her status in the society. In both cases we see both women are somehow trying to get a stable position in the society with the help of money as society gives financial matters only in the hands of men.
So both of the women are symbol of change promoted in the 20th century. While Nora is our protagonist, there are other characters which we see in play quite contrastive roles in comparison to the Nora.
Linde is another strong character in the play, which represents the struggling group of women in the society. She is a widow, who have been doing job to take care of her mother and brothers. Her role is constructive, positive and space filling. We can put her to fill any gap where Nora is unable to perform her role. In other words she acts as foil to Nora but quiet opposite to the image created by Nora.
Here she performs the role, in feminist term, feministic sisterhood. She glues the broken bond between Nora and Helmer by her reunion with Nils Krogstad. On other hand if we see the character of Mrs. We see Mrs. Shaw makes Mrs. Higgins more than simply a talking head. The only person that actually disappoints her is her husband, who immediately figures out a way to remain the good citizen with the loving wife and the happy family.
In a moment of intimate dialogue with the nurse, Nora asks: By asking that, it seems that Nora could not understand how a mother can do that to her children, although in the end of the play she thinks about the same thing.
Up to a point, one of the reasons may be that the author wanted to engage the reader in his play even after he or she finished reading. In my opinion, Henrik Ibsen acts as a focused sociologist, pointing out that the context can bring important transformations in people. Using the concepts of time and space, the author showed that actually the time is a subjective notion, because throughout the play, it feels as if it passes really slow or extremely fast, as fi one does not have time to breathe.
Moreover, the Norwegian playwright made use of the doors as gates from one state of mind to another.
That is when the characters move from one room to the other, something evolves in them. They change from being good to being bad or the other way around. Although it was written in , the characters still represent human typologies and this one of the reasons why Nora is still performed on stages worldwide. Because she represents a woman that defended her family more than anything, until the moment she discovered that her role was actually another than what she believed.
Elinor Fuchs advised us not to forget to ask ourselves what changes in us because of the play. Related Papers.
A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen. By Salman Rehman Shahbaz. By Arjun B Saravanan. A Doll's House Analysis.
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