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Caveman Chemistry Book 1 - Ebook download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File . pdf) or read book online. Book 1/2. Originally from the University of Chicago. (c) - page 1 of 8 - Get Instant Access to PDF File: a5e Caveman Chemistry: 28 Projects, From The Creation Of Fire To The. In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented, hands-on introduction to chemistry and View: PDF | PDF w/ Links.
The text is composed in four and three. Its father is the Sun. In this way was the book created. It is a book of secrets to be carefully tended like an eternal flame. And just as all things come from One. Page 7 of Pages. Everyone who lays hands on it and often tries it out will think that a kind of key is contained in it. Its strength is intact if it is turned towards the Earth. Therefore am I called Hermes Trismegistos. Herein have I completely explained the Operation of the Sun.
Its nourishment is the Earth. All obscurity shall be clear to thee. Separate the Earth by Fire. In this way was the World created. From this there will be amazing applications. That which is Above corresponds to that which is Below and that which is Below corresponds to that which is Above in the accomplishment of the miracle of One Thing. The wind has carried it in its belly. Let them slumber. To keep potential readers from chucking his masterpiece in with their empty pop bottles and pizza boxes.
It rises from the Earth to Heaven and descends again to the Earth. Thus thou wilt have the glory of the Whole World. This is the strong power of all powers for it overcomes everything fine and penetrates everything solid. It is the father of every completed thing in the Whole World. I'm afraid you'll have to put up with a bit of pseudo-alchemical techno-babble in the course of this book.
The Author might simply have described the nature of the elements. Page 8 of Pages. I believe it is more of an allegory about life and death. The periodic table is fine. If you ask me. The Emerald Tablet's not so much about literally changing lead into gold. Texas tea. Black gold. Act V. Indeed you are.
The first chapter belongs to me. Fire is the main culprit. Page 9 of Pages. But I am getting ahead of myself. Scene 1. This book will follow that pattern.
Notes  Reference . Unktomi Silicates 3. Bath Soap Eastman Photography Page 10 of Pages. DuPont Plastics Epilogue A. Marie Dyes Lucifer Charcoal 2. Back Cover B. Measuring and Mixing D. Supplies and Suppliers E. Perkin Aniline?
Dyes Vitruvius Lime The Laboratory Notebook C. Table of Contents Book 1 Prologue 1. Spot and Roebuck Acid Volta Batteries Adam Metathesis? Reactions 8. Theophilus Glass Venus Textiles 7. Dow Electrochemicals Job Alkali 9.
Leblanc Soda Athanor Ceramics 6. Bayer Pharmaceuticals Tzu-Chhun Gunpowder Badische Fertilizers Vulcan Metals Pliny Redox? Reactions Ts'ai Lun Paper Book 2 Samson Mead 5. Solvay Ammonia Adelard Alcohol Hammurabi Units 4. Properties of Sulfuric Acid Properties of Sulfurous Acid Skeleton Equations for Two Gunpowder Mixtures From Gypsum to Plaster and Back Again From Lime Back to Limestone From Urea to Ammonia The Condensation of an Ester Book 1.
Reactions of Ethanol and Acetic Acid Metals and Their Ores Book 2 List of Tables Book 1 Saponification Aqueous Solubility of Inorganic Compounds Two More Mineral Acids Common Unit Factors Page 11 of Pages.
Roasting of Sulfide Ores From Indogotin to Leucoindigotin Four Electrochemical Reactions Condensation of a Protein from Glycine The Combustion of Cellulose Reactions of Potassium Carbonate with Water From Air to Glucose to Cellulose From Aniline to Acetanilide From Leucoindigotin to Indigotin Book 2 Formulae for Some Common Substances Three Temperature Scales Reactions Involving Ammonia Reactions Involving Carbon Dioxide The Calcination of Kaolinite Combustion Products of Beech Wood Smelting of Oxide and Carbonate Ores Aerobic and Anaerobic Fermentation of Glucose Common Cations and Anions Acid Properties of Carbon Dioxide Solubility of Alkali Sulfates and Carbonates I was not afraid.
Beware its teeth. Who will feed it when I am gone?
Who will guide it with wisdom? Who will protect it from its enemies? Who will tame its terrible wrath? My child. No angel was I born. They say that he who would be its master must. Lucifer Charcoal Call me Lucifer. And yet. With my own breath did I restore its complexion until the murky dusk gave way to the gentle dawn. Fear of the darkness which harbors terrors unseen. The destroyer of worlds reduced to a silent gray infant. They say that to consort with it is to risk the utter annihilation of the whole world.
Old and tired am I now and can care for the infant no longer. In a wasteland of its own making did I find it starving and gasping. With my own hand did I feed it until at last its forked tongue licked at my fingers and. Fear of the cold which lulls us to sleep everlasting. Beasts among beasts. With my own heart did I incubate and nurture it until the savage winter gave way to an early spring. They say that its proper abode is the pit. Chapter 1. The world has forgotten my story.
Page 12 of Pages.
My sin. Ye have only to sit still while she devours thee. They say that it is evil. Fear of the tooth and the claw which hound us both in wakes and in dreams. Cherish these tools for the day that ye find need of them. I am not the mortal Dunn. Page 13 of Pages. Many flocked to the carbonaceous cornucopia and the party continued long into the night. It is. Animals rushed to and fro. A rather unremarkable animal roamed the African savanna that scorching summer day.
This was her lucky day! The meat was so warm. Neither am I that original fire-maker. That was the moment I was born. They recalled similar episodes from seasons past. This spectacle had presented itself to countless generations. There I bumped into other I-deas: I am not fire itself.
A spark. As simple I-deas merged into more complex ones. I called the shots now. How did this unremarkable animal differ from her father and mother. I am nothing more and nothing less than an I-dea.
And so it might have continued for another day. I was in control. She poked at one with a stick. I came to the realization that for the first time in my life. Before you can proceed with the Work. I did not have to helplessly watch while my mortal body shivered with cold or cowered in the darkness. But our hero turned her attention from the abundant delicacies to the stars that lay smoldering on the ground. She waved it about. If she were a little faster.
A bounty remained for scavengers who braved the heat. It all began with a spark. The old ones even used to boast about how much better the wildfires were when they were children. Slower than a lion. And just as the stars appeared in the black heavens. From just another I-dea I grew into a really good I-dea. I started as just another I-dea floating around in the primordial soup which was the unremarkable African's mind.
And I was told. Yet no culture on the planet has remained content to keep the home-fire burning while rejecting its gifts: Even the most radical Luddite would ask for a hut with a fireplace.
I wonder what I will find on the other side. From these humble beginnings I spread across the globe and through the centuries until at last I came to possess the mind of the mortal Dunn. By the time the original animal died I had. But even the most enthusiastic back-to-nature-ists among us would be loath to leave the inviting warmth of the campfire for life in the cold. Page 14 of Pages. Will the indigenous I-deas welcome me or will they consider me a threat?
Will they erect fire-walls to protect their delicate habitat or will they stoke the hearth and celebrate my coming? If there is no home for me there. It is fashionable these days to long for a simpler life. The original animal told her friend. I have found a place to temporarily alight on my long journey into the future.
This book is an introduction to that box. And so the telling continues. Notes  No one can know the gender of this first fire-maker. But you. I have chosen a female. Aristotle's Elements Lucifer was alive and well in BC. Aristotle summarized the opposing viewpoints: Anaximenes and Diogenes make air prior to water.
I didn't do it maliciously. In addition. Lucifer's pronouncements are preceded by the alchemical symbol for fire. I call that part of human nature—the part that thrills to a fireworks display. As it was. Page 15 of Pages. But none of that mattered to me—I was awestruck by the spectacle of the fire itself.
Figure As a teenager I once set fire to a field of wheat chaff. Our fascination with fire is something primal. Driven by curiosity. Any Book 1. Anaxagoras of Clazomenae. And so fire was assigned dominion over things "hot and dry. But a thing can be both hot and dry or cold and wet.
And the division into four makes a certain logical sense. Lavoisier's Elements If longevity is a sign of success. Page 16 of Pages. They are either wet or dry. They describe qualities. Water contains algae and fish and scum. A handful of earth can be separated into sand and clay. Page 17 of Pages. For wood. I might do this with tweezers and a magnifying glass. Look at most matter closely enough and you will see non-uniformities and these are the hallmark of heterogeneous matter.
The sky is divided into a blue expanse across which distinct white clouds roam. Lavoisier gave it the name oxygen and concluded that air was not an element. Even blood and milk are heterogeneous when viewed under a microscope.
Heterogeneous matter can be separated into its constituents by mechanical means. This gas extinguished candles and suffocated animals immersed into it. There are no light bits and dark bits: Either this was an amazing coincidence. I would have rendered the wood homogeneous. A solution has a uniform but variable composition. I would have the white pile and the brown pile. This new gas. I may now ask whether or not this air is an element. Whereas a solution is described by its percentage composition.
Most of the matter encountered in nature is heterogeneous. Let us examine each of these elements in turn. Let us call the white pile cellulose for future reference.
The red solid was collected and. The solution called air can be separated into the substances nitrogen and oxygen. Its composition may vary from city to suburb. The composition of the wood in the light areas is different from that in the dark areas. While there are many methods for separating a solution Book 1. No matter how closely I look at this sample. This question was explored by Antoine Lavoisier late in the eighteenth century. Look at it closely and you will see that its composition is not uniform.
Blood consists of the colorless plasma and the colored cells. At the end of the experiment. Lavoisier had showed that it can be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen.
When one substance decomposes into two. Lavoisier decomposed water by passing steam over iron. That is not to say that charcoal is inert. The evidence that water is a compound is also summarized in Elements of Chemistry.
Page 18 of Pages. With earth. Unlike wood. Filter it so that it is homogeneous. A substance is classified as a compound when it can be decomposed into two or more other substances. To show that charcoal is a compound we would have to turn one substance into two substances. While even fire has not survived as an element. Earth is heterogeneous. Careful observations reveal that when cellulose is heated in a closed container.
While the composition of water is fixed. The question remains. Recrystallization will be discussed in Chapter 8. No process has yet been found for doing so and since the time of Lavoisier. According to Lavoisier. Charcoal's composition is robust. Any sufficiently careful experiment will confirm these percentages. These proportions have been refined over the years as our ability to weigh gases has improved.
The heat released by the combustion causes more cellulose to char. Formulae for Some Common Substances Let us now examine the nature of fire using the combustion of wood in air as an example. Equation a describes the charring of cellulose and b describes the combustion of charcoal.
An equation is said to be balanced if the amount of each element is the same on either side of the equal sign. Reactions involving these substances are represented by the equations shown in Equation Page 19 of Pages. Since cellulose. Table Equation The Combustion of Cellulose Book 1. In such equations the attributes s. The combustion of cellulose occurs in two stages. It is this hot charcoal which burns when it comes into contact with oxygen. Wood is a heterogeneous material composed chiefly of cellulose.
When cellulose is heated. Taken together. Page 20 of Pages. In such a schematic the cellulose reactant enters from the left and moves into reactor a. Reactor b is a burner. Study them carefully. The lower circle of the furnace. Because water is a waste product in this reactor.
The convention established here is that reactants enter a reactor from the left. The top circle. Fire as a Process The equations of Equation correspond to the process schematic of Figure The middle circle.
The reactants. The intended product of the reactor. A stupid or careless person will. Do not make fire near flammable materials. Avoid inhaling smoke. Page 21 of Pages. Do not make fire in small.
If you are stupid. I had better tell you that the projects described in this book require a certain amount of common sense to be completed safely. Research and Development Before proceeding with your work. If you intend to make fire. In short. Given this atmosphere. Sand destined for the sand- box must carry a hazardous material warning.
Material Safety We live in a litigious society. Consequently lawn mowers must carry warnings that they are not to be used for trimming hedges.
Page 22 of Pages. Any suspicions of gender bias should therefore be attributed to the coin. One toss was allowed for each pronoun and this toss was never second-guessed. Notes  Reference  Metaphysica. An initial coin toss established the convention that "heads" would result in a female pronoun and vice versa.
In addition to stone. When wood is rubbed together. Page 23 of Pages. I wanted a method which would be Book 1. For this book. To make fire you need wood and air. Once people began making stone tools. Few people in the twenty-first century remember how to make fire.
If you are to make the long journey from caveman to chemist. The easiest. The Fire Kit None of the ancient methods of fire-making are easy to learn. With the invention of the glass lens in the fifteenth century. The modern friction match is based on this phenomenon. The modern cigarette lighter is the child of this technology. Figure L shows the complete fire kit. It is friction of the spindle against the fire-board which will produce the heat needed for our fire.
Since the spindle will be gradually consumed. The lower end of the spindle presses against a piece of wood. The guide is 9 inches tall and has two holes drilled at right angles to one another. The bow is held parallel to the ground with the right hand and as it moves back and forth. This leaves fire by friction. Figure shows the fire kit in operation. To keep from burning through the block. The four supports are 14 inches long and must be screwed or pegged to the guide and to one other so that they securely hold the guide upright.
One of the most popular tools for making fire by friction is the bow-drill. The left hand. Flint and steel is not too demanding but it requires steel. The top of the spindle will be held by a block.
Your bow will need a bow-string. The bow-string will be wrapped around the spindle in such a way that motion of the bow turns the spindle. The left foot is placed on the support with the shin parallel to the guide.
The vertical hole in the guide accommodates the spindle. The magnifying glass. In addition to the spindle and block. The "training wheels" consist of the guide a and supports b. In fact. To facilitate this practice I have devised "training wheels.
The holes must be drilled so that they intersect one another. Such rod can be purchased inexpensively at hardware stores and craft shops. The bow needs one hole at each end large enough to accommodate the nylon cord. The cord is knotted at one end.
The inside of this endcap should be lubricated with fat or oil so that downward pressure may be applied to the spindle as it turns. The spindle should turn freely. A brief overview of its parts and operation will be given first. The horizontal hole is 1 inch in diameter and goes completely through the guide. It is not necessary that the bow be either flexible or curved.
Page 24 of Pages. Page 25 of Pages. I have found yucca. Whichever wood you choose. If you choose the wrong wood. It can be recognized by its tuft of leaves at the base. Strip off the leaves and let the stalk dry. When looking for fire-board materials. Think balsa. Yucca and Mullein Not just any wood will work for the fire-board. Harvest the stalks in the fall. Figure L shows the far end of the bow. The bow-string passes from the spindle through the hole in the near end of the bow.
Page 26 of Pages. When the bow is brought parallel to the ground the bow-string will come under tension. The Bow Now that the overview is complete. Wrapping the bow-string rather than knotting it allows its tension to be re-adjusted quickly. The bow- string passes through a hole in the bow and is wrapped once around the spindle in the direction shown. With the bow at an acute angle to the ground. It is this hot punk which will give birth to the ember. A fresh spindle will be white and its end flat.
Page 27 of Pages. Figure R shows details of the fire-board. I pre-notch my fire-boards and place them into the guide so that the tip of the spindle is near the vertical chimney. This particular fire-board has already made a fire and consequently its hole is relatively deep. Several fire-boards may need to be consumed before this ideal condition is established. As the spindle burns a hole in the fire-board.
If the pressure from the block is too light.
Try to make the pushing stroke with the same speed and pressure as the pulling stroke. A Star Is Born Figure shows the fire-board with its chimney in the guide.
Once you have learned to make fire with the guide. A natural Lucifer may get an ember from the very first fire-board. If you manage the block and bow gently and with great skill. Therefore heavy pressure may be applied until smoke appears and then only enough pressure to maintain a thick. Two or three strokes per second are quite sufficient.
When this happens. Keep blowing until the ember appears. As the bow turns the spindle and pressure is applied with the block. The optimal bowing technique is to use long. The bow should move parallel to the ground and alongside your hips. Page 28 of Pages.
Quality Assurance There is no room for equivocation. Chapter 3 will discuss unit conversions so that people may adapt projects to the materials available to them. Having succeeded. Page 29 of Pages.
Either you have brought a red-hot glowing ember into the world or are content to live in darkness. I prefer the ring of caveman and human to caveperson and huperson.
Appendix B describes a suitable format. Describe your procedure in sufficient detail that you would be able to use it to reproduce your performance at some later date. Take one of your living embers and burn a hole through a page in your notebook as an everlasting witness to your achievement. Notes  Throughout this book I use the word caveman in a gender-neutral sense. When he heard what had happened. Just watch me hit him. They held a council and sent for the chief of the Unktomi tribe.
One was a very thoughtful young man. Unktomi Silicates There were once upon a time two young men who were very great friends. When my men are thus engaged they do not wish to be disturbed.
The thoughtful young man. The blood kept coming thicker and in great gushes. I set a great many of my tribe to work making flint arrowheads for you. They ascended a high hill. He coughed and coughed. My man could not sit and take this insult.
One day these two friends were walking along. Looking around they discovered a large spider sitting in the midst of a great many flint arrowheads. This produced a hemorrhage. Said he: Chapter 2. As Unktomi rolled over on his side. The spider was busily engaged making the flint rocks into arrow heads. Page 30 of Pages. They looked at the spider.
The relatives and friends hurried to the hill. Finally it came so thick and fast that the man could not get his breath and fell upon the ground dead. Ever after that. Thus it was that Unktomi Tanka Big Spider had the respect of this tribe.
Page 31 of Pages. Unktomi is making arrowheads. Unktomi Tanka finished his peace smoke and returned to his tribe. So now. And that's how it was for that critter for a long time. And that's how it was with Indians.
You ever seen a spider go from one tree to another? Maybe you think she squirts her silk out her back end and shoots herself across like a kind of rocket or something. And one day he was out wandering around looking for food. Now you might call it an accident. And eventually that string is long enough that it lands on another tree. And he was walking along. And the wind blows that spider away from the tree and she lets out a little more silk and pretty soon she's like a tiny little kite on the end of a string.
And they had circles in rock art and sand painting and weaving and all. That's when something in his mind connectified the busted rocks with those bones and he just went whacko on them until they were all busted into pieces.
You know Indians never made wheels? They knew about circles. Once she's in her new home she looks around at what's already there and starts webifying the place. And they had sleds for hauling stuff around.
And Indians today are even smart enough to be doctors and lawyers. And that's how it is with spiders. Page 32 of Pages. From then on. Then one day he found a wildebeest that the hyenas had killed and they had pretty much stripped it down to the bone. And some of them were smart enough to build cities and pyramids. And you know. And then he kicked that rock and it cut his toe. And it made him mad that the hyenas hadn't left him nothing. Now I wouldn't blame you if were thinking "What the heck kind of chemistry book is this.
Of course. I've been connectifying earth to stuff for a long time. When the inspiration got into the second guy. Page 33 of Pages. Out comes the Sun to dry up all the rain and the surviving inspirations go about their connectifying business again. And his buddy saw that and from then on. Whenever something good came of it. You might think there was only one inspiration. Years later this same guy was out gathering food with his buddy. Whenever I speak my paragraphs will start out with the alchemical symbol for earth.
You might say the second guy copied the first guy. And so it went. Notes  Reference . I think it would be better to think there were two slightly different inspirations.
Just like spiders. Down comes the rain to wash any wimpy. And it was almost as if something had passed from the first guy to the second. But this book is all about connectifying stuff up and that's what inspirations do. If you think about it. Unktomi is right to stress the importance of crystals. No matter whether it's in a cave or a quarry or a chemical laboratory. The balls pile randomly over each other. And not just a metaphor for pure. Because the distance between rows would be different for balls of different sizes.
Put it another way. The rows are aligned at angles of sixty degrees to one another. Way after the end of the radioactive cockroach civilization. Isolated pockets may form which contain. This situation can be modeled by mixing balls of different sizes in our dish.
Table of Contents. Caveman Chemistry: Michael S. Cite this: Abstract In Caveman Chemistry, Kevin Dunn presents a historically oriented, hands-on introduction to chemistry and chemical technology that is tremendously entertaining.
Keywords Audience: General Public ;. Keywords Domain: Keywords Feature: Book and Media Reviews ;. Keywords Pedagogy: Keywords Subject: Stoichiometry ;.