LanguageUrdu. Allah Pak Ki Nisbat Hindoun Ka Aitiqad,Makhloqat Ki Jinsain Aur Un Ka Naam,. IdentifierKitab-Ul-HindAlberoni. Syed Ali Asghar meteolille.info: Anjuman E Taraqqi E Urdu Delhi dc. meteolille.infope: application/pdf meteolille.info: Kitabul Hind Alberuni. Kitab-ul-Hind. Collectionurduislamicbooks; additional_collections. Language Urdu. Kitab-ul-Hind Urdu Islamic Books Collection. Additional.
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Kitab Ul Hind (The India Book). Front Cover. Urdu Movies. 1 Review · Preview this book». What people are saying - Write a review. We haven't found any. Urdu: Download Pdf This is a very brief history covering only limited time period.. . Unit 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of Al Kitab Al Asasi Book 1 in Urdu. book Kitab ul hind ahl e hadeesin PDF format. Download Kitab Ul Hind by author Abu Rehan Al-Bairooni · Download. Related Books.
He began studies at a very early age under the famous astronomer and mathematician Abu Nasr Mansur.
At the age of 17, he was engaged in serious scientific work. In A. Al-Biruni was a great linguist and a prolific writer.
Besides the knowledge of his mother tongue, Khwarazmi, an Iranian dialect of the northern region with Turkish influence , he knew Hebrew, Syriac and Sanskrit.
He was well acquainted with the works of Plato and other Greek masters through Syriac and Arabic. Most of his works, including Kitabul Hind, are in Arabic. Those days Arabic was not only an international language but also a language of science and arts. The end of the 10th century and beginning of the 11th century was a period of an unrest and upheaval in the Islamic world.
There were civil wars in the region where Al-Biruni was born. Khwarazm was part of the Samanid Empire, which was ruled from Bukhara. It is not clear when Al-Biruni left Khwarazm. But as records show he had the patronage of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni Al-Biruni lived and worked in Ghazni until his death at the age of 75 in A.
In order to complete his research work he stayed in India for 13 years. Al-Biruni had developed particular interest in India and the Indians when he was still in Ghazni.
Al-Biruni also had an opportunity to get first-hand information of Indian scientific works by Indian scholars. Al-Biruni wrote books. Out of those only two, the Atharul Baqiya and the Kitabul Hind, are available in print. We find Al-Biruni honestly acknowledging incompleteness of his information on any topic but it is not a pretext to provide his reader half or incorrect information. Al-Biruni is very honest and intelligent in his investigation of the facts.
He tried to get all the information from original books and manuscripts that were available in his times. For this he diligently learned Sanskrit and other languages. Since he knew many aspects of sciences, he cannot be compared with the scholars of modern day whose knowledge remains limited to a particular branch of science or literature. His scientific methodology is modern and comparative approach unique. He depicts a real picture of Hindu society.
For that which the Brahmans give reverts to the pitaras is in reality a benefit to the fathers. He must continuously read, perform the sacrifices, take care of the fire which he lights, offer before it, worship it, and preserve it from being extinguished, that he may be burned by it after his death. Al-Biruni gives many more details of what Brahmans are obliged to do.
He rules the people and defends them, for he is created for this task. Then he mentions other castes: Retrieved August 20, In Boyle, J.
The Saljuq and Mongol Periods. The Iranian scholar al-BIruni says that the Khwarazmian era began when the region was first settled and cultivated, this date being placed in the early 13th-century BC Frye, Richard Nelson February The Golden Age of Persia. Phoenix Publishing, Incorporated. The contribution of Iranians to Islamic mathematics is overwhelming. Saleem Al-Biruni's Discovery of India: An Interpretative Study. It is generally accepted that he was Persian by origin, and spoke the Khwarizmian dialect Rahman, H.
Mansell Publishing, p. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved Lindberg, David C.
Science in the Middle Ages. University of Chicago Press. A Persian by birth, a rationalist in disposition, this contemporary of Avicenna and Alhazen not only studied history, philosophy, and geography in depth, but wrote one of the most comprehensive Muslim astronomical treatises, the Qanun Al-Masu'di. Massignon, L. Iran Society. In a celebrated preface to the book of Drugs, Biruni says, "And if it is true that in all nations one likes to adorn oneself by using the language to which one has remained loyal, having become accustomed to using it with friends and companions according to need, I must judge for myself that in my native Khwarezmian , science has as much as chance of becoming perpetuated as a camel has of facing Kaaba.
Strohmaier , p. In Selin, Helaine. Ahmad New Ed. Sachau , Chronology, xivxvi , in the suburb birun of Kath, capital of Khwarizm He was equally well versed in the mathematical, astronomic, physical and natural sciences and also distinguished himself as a geographer and historian, chronologist and linguist and as an impartial observer of customs and creeds. He is known as al-Ustdadh, 'the Master'.
A Source Book. In Ray, Himanshu Prabha. Negotiating Cultural Identity: International Journal of Sciences.
Beyond Death: The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization. Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions: A Historical Survey. Oxford University Press. Kessinger Publishing. July Classical Scientific Astrology. American Federation of Astr. Sachau , Alberuni's India: Journal for the History of Astronomy. Aramco World.
Richard Historical Eclipses and Earth's Rotation. Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. Psychology Press. Using a whole body of mathematical methods not only those inherited from the antique theory of ratios and infinitesimal techniques, but also the methods of the contemporary algebra and fine calculation techniques , Muslim scientists raised statics to a new, higher level. The classical results of Archimedes in the theory of the centre of gravity were generalized and applied to three-dimensional bodies, the theory of ponderable lever was founded and the 'science of gravity' was created and later further developed in medieval Europe.
The phenomena of statics were studied by using the dynamic approach so that two trends — statics and dynamics — turned out to be inter-related within a single science, mechanics. The combination of the dynamic approach with Archimedean hydrostatics gave birth to a direction in science which may be called medieval hydrodynamics.
The classical works of al-Biruni and al-Khazini can by right be considered as the beginning of the application of experimental methods in medieval science. Frederick 12 December History Today".
Early Arabic Pharmacology: Brill Archive. The First Anthropologist". RAIN Anthropological Quarterly. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved Aug 12, Alberuni's India: Journal of Near Eastern Studies.
Reading in Indian history. New Delhi, India: Retrieved 22 June Nasr, "An introduction to Islamic cosmological doctrines: SUNY press, Qatar Digital Library.
In our Time — Al-Biruni". Retrieved 11 September Bearman, P. Encyclopaedia of Islam. Retrieved 10 November MacKenzie, D. October 18, The Chorasmian Language". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Chorasmian, the original Iranian language of Chorasmia, is attested at two stages of its development. Strohmaier, Gotthard In Meri, Josef W. Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. Translated by Berjak, Rafik.
Retrieved 15 January Alikuzai, Hamid Wahed October A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes. Trafford Publishing. Bosworth, C. February 1, Pingree, David February 1, Saliba, George Mathematics and Astronomy". Pingree, David Anawati, Georges C. History and Chronology". History of Religion". Lawrence, Bruce B. Douglas, A.
Springer, pp. Sachau , ed. Rosenthal, F. Yarshter, ed. This section's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world. Babylonian astronomy Egyptian astronomy Hellenistic astronomy Indian astronomy.
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